Brut y Tywysogion Jesus MS 111 (Red Book of Hergest)

redbook

A page from Brut y Tywysogion Jesus MS 111 (Red Book of Hergest).

Red Book of Hergest

681. Six hundred and eighty one was the year of Christ, when the great mortality too place through the whole island of Britain. And the beginning of the world until that period one year was wanting of five thousand eight hundred and eighty years.1

And in that year Cadwalader the Blessed, son of Cadwallon, son of Cadvan, king of the Britons, died at Rome, on the twelfth day of May; as Myrddin had previously prophesied to Vortigern of Repulsive Lips; and thenceforth the Britons lost the crown of the kingdom, and the Saxons gained it.2

683. And after Cadwalader, Ivor, son of Alan, king of Armorica, which is called Little Britain, reigned; not as a king, but as a chief or prince. And he exercised government over the Britons for forty-eight years, and then died. And after him Rhodri Molwynog reigned.

685. And in his time two years subsequently, there was a mortality in Ireland.3

687. And then, the year following, there was an earthquake in Armorica.4

688. And then, four years after that, it rained blood in the island of Britain and Ireland.5

690. Six hundred and ninety was then the year of Christ, and then the milk and butter turned to blood.

692. Two years after that, and the moon turned of a bloody colour.

704. Four years and seven hundred was the year of Christ, when Elfryt, king of the Saxons, died, and was buried at Damnan.

710. Seven hundred and ten was the year of Christ, when Pepin the Elder, king of France, died. And then the night was as light as day.6

716. And then, a year after that, Osbric, king of the Saxons, died.7

717. And, a year after that, the church of St. Michael was consecrated.

720. Seven hundred and twenty was the year of Christ, when the hot summer happened.

721. And then, a year after that, Beli, son of Elfin, died. And the battle of Heilin, with Rhodri Molwynog, took place in Cornwall; and the action of Garthmaelog, and the fight of Pencoed in South Wales. And in those three battles the Britons were victorious.

728. Seven hundred and thirty was the year of Christ, when there was a battle on Carn mountain.

735. Seven hundred and forty was the year of Christ, when Bede the priest died.

736. And then, a year after that, Owain, king of the Picts, died.8

750. Seven hundred and fifty was the year of Christ, when the battle between the Britons and Picts took place, to wit, the action of Maesydog, and the Britons killed Talargan, king of the Picts. And then Tewdwr, son of Beli, died.

754. And, four years after that, Rhodri Molwynog, king of the Britons, died.;

757. And, three years after that, Edbalt, king of the Saxons.

760. Seven hundred and sixty was the year of Christ, when a battle between the Britons and Saxons took place, to wit, the action of Hereford. And Dyvnwal, son of Tewdwr, died.

768. Seven hundred and seventy was the year of Christ, when the Easter of the Britons was altered by the command of Elbod, a man of God.

773. Seven hundred and seventy-three was the year of Christ, and then Fernvail, son of Idwal the Roe, died.

774. A year after that Cemoyd, king of the Picts, died;

775. And abbot Cubert, the next year after that.

776. And then, the next year to that, the destruction of the South Wales men by king Offa took place.

784. Seven hundred and eighty was the year of Christ, when king Offa spoiled the Britons in summer time.

795. Seven hundred and ninety was the year of Christ, when the Pagans first came to Ireland, and Racline was destroyed.

796. And, a year after that, king Offa died; and Maredudd, king of Dyfed; and a battle took place at Rhuddlan.

798. Eight hundred was the year of Christ, when the Saxons killed Caradog, king of Gwynedd.

807. Eight hundred and seven was the year of Christ, and then Arthen, king of Ceredigion, died. And there was an eclipse of the sun.

808. And, a year after that, Rein, king of Dyved, died; and Cadell, king of Powys.

809. And, a year after that, died Elbod, archbishop of Gwynedd.

810. Eight hundred and ten was the year of Christ, when the moon turned black on Christmas day; Menevia was burnt; and there was a mortality among the cattle over the island of Britain.

812. And, a year after that, a battle took place between Howel and Cynan; and Howel conquered.

815. And then, three years after that, there was a great thunderstorm, which caused many conflagrations; and Tryffin, son of Rein, died; and Griffri, son of Cyngen, son of Cadell, was slain, through the treachery of his brother Elisse; and Howel subdued the isle of Mona; and expelled his brother Cynan from Mona, killing many of his army.9

817. And, two years after that, Howel was a second time driven from Mona; and Cynon, king of Gwynedd, died; and the Saxons ravaged the mountains of Eryri,10 and took the kingdom of Rhuvoniog.

818. And, a year after that, a fight took place in Mona, called the action of Llanvaes.

819. And, a year after that, Cenulf ravaged the kingdoms of Dyved.

823. Three and twenty and eight hundred was the year of Christ, when the castle of Dyganwy was destroyed by the Saxons. And then the Saxons took the kingdom of Powys into their possession.

825. And, two years after that, Howel, king of Man, died.

831. One and thirty and eight hundred was the year of Christ, when the eclipse of the moon happened on the eighth day of the month of December. And Satubin, bishop of Menevia, died.

840. Eight hundred and forty was the year of Christ, when Meurug, the bishop, governed in Menevia.

842. And, two years after that, Idwallon died.

844. And, two years after that, the action of Cetyll took place. And Mervyn the Freckled, died.

849. Eight hundred and fifty was the year of Christ, when Meurug was killed by the Saxons.

850. Eight hundred and fifty was the year of Christ, and Cyngen was strangled by the Pagans.

853. And three years after that, Mona was ravaged by the black Pagans.11

854. And, a year after that, Cyngen, king of Powys, died in Rome.

856. Two years after that Cemoyth, king of the Picts, died. And Ionathal, prince of Abergeleu, died.

860. Eight hundred and sixty was the year of Christ, when Maelsalacheu died.

862. Two years after eight hundred and sixty years was the year of Christ, when Cadweithen was driven away.

864. Two years after that, he ravaged Glywysig.

865. Two years after that, Cynan, of Nant Nyver, died.

866. And, a year after that, Caer Evrog was devastated in the battle of Dubkynt.

869. Eight hundred and seventy was the year of Christ, when the battle of Cryn Onen took place.

870. Eight hundred and seventy was the year of Christ, and Caer Alclut was demolished by the Pagans.

871. And, a year after that, Gwgawn, son of Meurug, king of Ceredigion, was drowned.

873. And, two years after that, the action of Bangoleu took place, and there Cynan was slain: and the action of Menegyd in Mona. And Meurug, a bishop of noble lineage, died.

874. And, a year after that, Lwmbert assumed the bishopric of Menevia.

875. And, a year after that, Dwrngarth, king of Cornwall, was drowned.

876. And, a year after that, the action on Sunday took place in Mona.

877. And, a year after that, Rhodri, and his brother Gwriad, were killed by the Saxons.

878. And, a year after that, Aedd, son of Mellt, died.

880. Eight hundred and eighty was the year of Christ, when the action of Conwy took place, for God to avenge Rhordri.

882. Two years after that, Cadweithen died.

885. Three years after that, Howel died in Rome.

887. Two years after that, Cerball died.

889. Eight hundred and ninety was the year of Christ, when Subin, the wisest of the Scots, died.12

890. Eight hundred and ninety was the year of Christ, and then the black Normans13 came a second time to Castle Baldwin.

891. And a year after that, Heinuth, son of Bledri, died.

893. And then, two years after that, Anarawd came to devastate Ceredigion and the Vale of Tywi.

894. And then, a year after that, the Normans devastated England, Brecheiniog, Morganwg. Gwent, Buallt, and Gwenllwg.

895. And then, a year after that, provision failed in Ireland; for vermin of a mole-like form, each having two teeth, fell from heaven, which devoured all the food; and through fasting and prayer they were driven away.

897. And then, two years after that, Elstan, king of the Saxons, died.

898. And a year after that, Alvryd, king of the Gewissi.

900. Nine hundred was the year of Christ, when Igmond came to the isle of Mona, and fought the battle of Rhos Meilon.

901. And then the son of Mervyn was killed by the Pagans. And Llywarch, son of Hennyth, died.

902. And Rhydderch, son of Hennyth, was beheaded in Arwystli on the feast of St. Paul.

904. And the action of Dineirth took place, in which Maelog the Crooked, son of Peredur, was slain. And then Menevia was destroyed.

905. And bishop Gorchwyl died. And Corvoc14, king and bishop of all Ireland, died; a man eminent for faith and charity. A son of Culeuan was slain voluntarily in battle. And Cerwallt, son of Muregan, king of Leinster, died of a fatal disorder.

906. And Asser, archbishop of the isle of Britain, died;

907. And Cadell, son of Rhodri.

911. Nine hundred and ten was the year of Christ, when Other came to the Island of Britain.

913. And Anarawd, son of Rhodri, king of the Britons, died.

914. And Ireland and Mona were devastated by the people of Dublin. And queen Edelfled died.

917. And Clydog, son of Cadell, son of Rhodri the Great, was killed by his brother Meurug.

918. And Uercu, an good bishop, died.

919. And the action of Dinas Newydd took place.

926. Nine hundred and twenty was the year of Christ, when king Howel the Good15, son of Cadell, went to Rome: and Elen died.

933. Nine hundred and thirty was the year of Christ, when Gruffudd, son of Owain, was slain by the men of Ceredigion,

935. And the battle of Brun took place.

936. And Hennyrth, son of Clydog, and his brother Meurug, died.

939. And Edelstan, king of the Saxons, died.

940. Nine hundred and forty was the year of Christ, when king Abloye died.

941. And Cadell, son of Arthvael, was poisoned; and Idwal, son of Rhodri, and his brother Elised, were killed by the Saxons.

942. And Lwmbert, bishop of Menevia, died.

943. And Ussa, son of Llawr; and Morcheis, bishop of Bangor, died.

944. And Cyngen, son of Elised, was poisoned; and Eueurys, bishop of Menevia, died. Strath Clyde was devastated by the Saxons.

948. And Howel the Good, son of king Cadell, chief and glory of all the Britons, died. And Cadwgan, son of Owain, was killed by the Saxons. And then the action of Carno took place between the sons of Owain, son of Howel, and the sons of Idwal.

950. Nine hundred and fifty was the year of Christ, when Iago and Ieuav, sons of Idwal, ravaged Dyved twice; and Dunwallon was slain by their men.

951. And then Dyvnwal and Rhodri, sons of Howel, died.16

952. And then, a year after that, a great slaughter took place been the sons of Idwal and the sons of Howel, in the action of Conwy at Llanrwst. And Hirmawr and Anarawd were killed by the Pagans; they were sons of Gwriad. And after that Ceredigion was devastated by the sons of Idwal. And Edwin, son of Howel the Good, died.

953. And a year after that, Hayarddur, son of Mervyn, was drowned.

954. A year after that, Edwin, son Howel, died. And Congalach, king of Ireland, was slain.

955. And, a year after that, was killed Gwgawn, son of Gwriad, son of Rhodri the Great. And the hot summer happened.

958. Three years after that, Owain devastated the Gorwennydd.

959. And a year after that, a great snow happened in the month of March; the sons of Idwal reigning. And the sons of Abloec devastated Caer Gybi and Lleyn.

960. Nine hundred and sixty was the year of Christ, when Idwal, son of Rhodri, was killed.

961. And, a year after that, the sons of Gwyn were killed. And Towyn was devastated by the Pagans; and Meurug, son of Cadvan, died;

962. And, a year after that, bishop Rhydderch;

964. And, two years after that, Cadwallon, son of Owain, son of Howel the Good.

965. And then, a year after that, the Saxons, headed by Alvryd17, ravaged the kingdoms of the sons of Idwal.

966. And, a year after that, Rhodri, son of Idwal, was slain, and Aberfraw was devastated.

967. And, a year after that, Iago son of Idwal, blinded his brother Ieuav, son of Idwal. And Ieuav was imprisoned; and after that hanged.

968. And then, a year after that, Gower was devastated by Einon, son of Owain.

969. And, a year after that, Mark, son of Harold, devastated Penmon.

970. Nine hundred and seventy was the year of Christ, when Godfrey, son of Harold, devastated Mona, and by great craft subjugated the whole island.

971. And then, a year after that, Edgar, king of the Saxons, collected a very great fleet at Caerleon upon Usk.

972. And, a year after that, Iago was expelled from his territory, and Howel ruled in consequence of his victory. And Meurug, son of Idwal, fell sick. And Morgan died.

974. And, two years after that, Edgar, king of the Saxons, died. And Dunwallon, king of Strath Clyde, went to Rome. And Idwallon, son of Einon, died.

976. And, two years after that, Einon devastated Gower a second time.

977. And, a year after that, the Grove of Celynog the Great was devastated a second time by Howel, son of Ieuav, and the Saxons.

978. And then, a year after that, Iago was captured. And Howel, son of Ieuav, had the victory, and conquered the territory of Iago.

979. And, a year after that, Idwal was slain. And after that Constantine, son of Iago, and Godfrey, son of Harold, devastated Lleyn and Mona. And after that Constantine, son of Iago, was killed by Howel, son of Ieuav, in the battle called the action of Hirbarth.

981. One year and nine hundred and eighty was the year of Christ, when Godfrey, son of Harold, devastated Dyved and Menevia. And the action of Llanwenog took place.

982. And then, a year after that, Brecheiniog, and all the territory of Einon, son of Owain, were devastated by the Saxons, Alvryd being their leader. And Howel, son of Ieuav, and Einon killed many of his host.

983. And then, the year next to that, Einon, son of Owain, was killed through treachery by the nobles of Gwent. And their bishop of noble lineage died.

984. And, a year after that, the Saxons killed Howel, son of Ieuav, through treachery. And Ionaval, son of Meurug, was killed, and Cadwallon, son of Ieuav, killed him.

985. And a year after that, Maig, son of Ieuav, was killed and Maredudd, son of Owain, killed Cadwallon, son of Ieuav, victoriously, and subjugated his territory, to wit, the isle of Mona and Meirionydd; and all the districts of Gwynedd he subdued by extreme craft and cunning.

986. And then, a year after that, Llywarch, son of Owain, was deprived of his eyes.18 And Godfrey, son of Harold, with the black host, devastated the isle of Mona. And two thousand men were blinded; and the remainder Maredudd, son of Owain, took with him to Ceredigion and Dyved. And then a mortality took place among all the cattle over the whole island of Britain

987. And then, a year after that, Ieuav, son of Idwal, died, and Owain son of Howel. And the Pagans devastated Llanbadarn, and Menevia, and Llanilltud, and Llangarvan, and Llandydoch.

988. And then, a year after that, Glumaen, son of Abloec, was killed. And Maredudd, son of Owain, paid to the black Pagans a tribute of a penny for each person. And a great mortality took place among the men through famine.

989. And, a year after that, Owain, son of Dyvnwal, was slain.

990. Nine hundred and ninety was the year of Christ, and Maredudd devastated Maes Hyveidd.

991. A year after that, nine hundred and ninety was the year of Christ, when Edwin, son of Einon, with Eclis the Great, a Saxon prince from the seas of the South, devastated all the kingdoms of Maredudd, to wit, Dyved, and Ceredigion, and Gower, and Cydweli; and a second time took hostages from all the territory; and devastated Menevia a third time. And Maredudd hired the Pagans willing to join him, and devastated Glamorgan; and his son Cadwallon died.

992. And then, a year after that, the sons of Meurug made an inroad into Gwynedd, and the isle of Mona was devastated by the Pagans on Ascension Thursday.

993. And then, a year after that, a great famine happened in the territory of Maredudd. And a battle took place between the sons of Meurug and Maredudd near Llangwm, and the sons of Meurug conquered; and there Tewdwr, son of Einon, was slain.

994. And then, a year after that, the isle of Man was devastated by Swain, son of Harold.

995. And then, a year after that, Idwal, son of Meurug, was killed. And Arthmarcha19 was devastated and burned.

998. And, three years after that, Menevia was depopulated by the Pagans. And bishop Morgeneu was killed by them. And Maredudd, son of Owain, the most celebrated king of the Britons, died.

999. A thousand was the year of Christ, when Dublin was devastated by the Scots.20 And Cynan, son of Howel, reigned in Gwynedd.

1000. A thousand was the year of Christ, and the Pagans devastated Dyved.

1001. And, a year after that, Mor, son of Gwyn, died, and Ivor of Porth Talarthi.

1003. And, a year after that, Cynan, son of Howel, was killed.

1004. And, a year after that, Gwlvac and Gwriad were blinded.

1005. A year after that was the first year called decem-novennalis cicli II.21

1011. One year and one thousand and ten was the year of Christ, when Menevia was devastated by the Saxons, to wit, by Entris and Ubis. And Hayarndrud, a monk of Bardsey, died.

1012. And then, a year after that, Swain, son of Harold, came to England, and expelled Edelred, son of Edgar, from his kingdom, and reigned in his territory, in which he died in that year.

1013. And then Brian22, king of all Ireland, and his son Mwrchath, and many other kings, were stirred up against Dublin, where Sitruc, son of Abloec, was king. And against them came the men of Leinster, headed by their king Mael Mordav; and they confederated against king Brian. And Sitruc hired a hundred men against Brian; and then Sitruc hired armed long ships full of mailed men, headed by Derotyr; and after a battle between them, and slaughter made on both sides, Brian and his son were killed on one side, and the leader of the shops and his brother, and king Mael Mordav, on the other side.

1015. And then, two years after that, Owain, son of Dyvnwal, was killed. And then, a year after that Cnute, son of Swain, took possession of the kingdom of England, and Denmark, and Germany the Great.

1016. And then, a year after that, Aeddan, son of Blegywryd, and his four sons, were killed by Llywelyn, son of Seisyll.

1019. And, three years after that, Meurug, son of Arthvael, was killed.

1020. One thousand and twenty was the year of Christ, and then a certain Scot falsely pretended to be the son of king Maredudd, and caused himself ot be named king; and the men of the South received him as their lord, and to a kingdom; and his name was Rein. And Llywelyn, son of Seisyll, supreme king of Gwynedd, and the chief and most renowned king of all the Britons, made war against him. In this time it was usual for the elders of his kingdom to say, that his dominion was from one sea to the other, complete in abundance of wealth and inhabitants; so that it was supposed there was neither poor nor destitute in all his territories, nor an empty hamlet, nor any deficiency. And then Rein the Scot boldly led on his host, and, after the manner of the Scots, proudly and ostentatiously exhorted his men to fight, confidently promising them that he should conquer. And so he boldly approached his enemies, and they coolly and fearlessly awaited that vaunting and arrogant challenger. He, daring and fearless, repaired to the conflict, and after the battle was fought, with a general slaughter on both sides, and was constant fighting, through the bravery of the Gwyneddians, victory was obtained over Rein the Scot and his host. And as it is proverbially said, ‘Excite thy dog, but do not pursue;’ he assaulted bravely and fearlessly, and retreated shamefully in a fox-like manner. And the Gwyneddians wrathfully pursued him, slaying his men, and devastating the country, pillaging every place, and destroying it as far as Mercia; and he never from henceforward made his appearance. And that battle took place at Aber Gwyli. And after that Eilad came to the island of Britain, and Dyved was devastated, and Menevia was demolished.

1021. And then, a year after that, Llywelyn, son of Seisyll, died. And Rhydderch, son of Iestin, assumed the government of the South.

1023. And then, two years after that, Morgeneu, bishop of Menevia, died.

1024. A year after that was the first year called decem-novennalis.

1025. And, a year after that, Cynan, son of Seisyll, was killed.

1031. One year and one thousand and thirty was the year of Christ, when Rhydderch, son of Iestin, was killed by the Scots. And then Iago, son of Idwal, held the government of Gwynedd after Llywelyn, son of Seisyll. And Howel and Maredudd, sons of Edwin, held the government of the South.

1032. And then, a year after that, the action of Hiraethwy took place between the sons of Edwin and the sons of Rhydderch.

1032. And then, a year after that, Maredudd, son of Edwin, was killed by the sons of Cynan. And Caradog, son of Rhydderch, was killed by the Saxons.

1036. And then, Cnute, son of Swain, king of England, and Denmark and Germany, died. And after his death Eilav fled into Germany.

1037. And then, four years after that, the Pagans captured Meurug, son of Howel. And Iago, king of Gwynedd, was slain; and Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn, son of Seisyll, governed in his stead: and he, from beginning to end, pursued the Saxons, and the other nations, and killed and destroyed them, and overcame them in a multitude of battles. The first battle he fought at Rhyd y Groes on the Severn, where he was victorious. That year he depopulated Llanbadarn, and obtained the government of South Wales, and dispossessed Howel, son of Edwin, of his territory.

1038. And then, a year after that, Heurun, bishop of Menevia, died.

1039. And then, a year after that, the action of Pen Cadeir took place, and Gruffydd overcame Howel, and captured his wife, and took her to be his own wife.

1040. One thousand and forty was the year of Christ, when the battle of Pwll Dyvach took place, and there Howel vanquished the Pagans who were ravaging Dyved. In that year Gruffudd was captured by the Pagans of Dublin.

1041. And then, a year after that, Howel, son of Edwin, king of Glamorgan, died in his old age.

1042. And then, a year after that, Howel, son of Edwin, meditated the devastation of South Wales, accompanied by a fleet of the people of Ireland, and against him was opposed Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn. And after a cruel battle, and a vast slaughter of the army of Howel and of the Irish at Aber Tywi, Howel fell and was slain, and Gruffudd was victorious. And then Evilfre, and Mactus the monk, died.

1043. And then, a year after that, Joseph, bishop of Llandav, died at Rome. And exceeding treachery was practised by Gruffudd and Rhys, sons of Rhydderch, son of Iestin, against Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn.

1045. And then, two years after that, about seven score men of the family of Gruffudd fell, through the treachery of the men of the Vale of Tywi, and to avenge them, Gruffudd devastated the Vale of Tywi and Dyved. And then there fell a great snow on the calends of January, which remained until the feast of St. Patrick.

1047. And, two years after that, all South Wales lay waste.

1050. One thousand and fifty was the year of Christ, when a fleet failed coming from Ireland to South Wales.

1054. And then, four years after that, Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn, killed Gruffudd, son of Rhydderch. And after that Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn, raised an army against the Saxons, and arrayed his forces at Hereford; and against him the Saxons rose a very great host, Reinolf being commander over them; and they met together, arranged their armies, and prepared to fight. Gruffudd attacked them immediately with well-ordered troops, and after a severely hard battle, the Saxons, unable to bear the assault of the Britons, took to flight, and fell with a very great slaughter. Gruffudd closely pursued them to the fortress, which he entered, and depopulated and demolished the fortress, and burned the town; and from thence, with very great booty, he returned happily and victoriously to his own country.

1056. And then, two years after that, Magnus, son of Harold, king of Germany, came to England, and ravaged the dominions of the Saxons, Gruffudd, king of the Britons, being conductor and auxiliary to him.

1057. And then, a year after that, Owain, son of Gruffudd, died.

1061. One year and one thousand and sixty was the year of Christ, when Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn, the head and shield, and defender of the Britons, fell through treachery of his own men. The man who had been hitherto invincible, was now left in the glens of desolation, after taking immense spoils, and after innumerable victories, and countless treasures of gold and silver, and jewels and purple vestures. And then Joseph, bishop of Menevia, died.

1062. And, a year after that, the first decem-novennalis.

1064. And, two years after that, Dwnchath, son of Brian, died on his way to Rome.

1066. And then, a year after that, Harold, king of Denmark, meditated the subjection of the Saxons; whom another Harold, son of earl Godwin, who was then king in England, surprised, unwarned and unarmed, and by sudden attack, aided by national treachery, struck to the ground, and caused his death. That Harold who, at first earl, though cruelty after the death of king Edward unduly acquired the sovereignty of the kingdom of England, was despoiled of his kingdom and life by William the Bastard, duke of Normandy, though previously vauntingly victorious. And that William defended the kingdom of England in a great battle, with an invincible hand, and his most noble army.

1068. And then the action of Mechain took place between Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, sons of Cynvyn, and Maredudd and Ithel, sons of Gruffudd; when the sons of Gruffudd fell. Ithel was killed in the battle, and Maredudd, son of Owain, son of Edwin, held South Wales.

1070. One thousand and seventy was the year of Christ, when Maredudd, son of Owain, was killed by Caradog, son of Gruffudd, son of Rhydderch, and the French, on the banks of the river Rymney. And then Macmael Minbo, the most renowned and most powerful king of the Gwyddelians, was slain in a sudden onset;–the man who was terrible to his foes, friendly to his countrymen, and gentle towards pilgrims and strangers.

1071. And then, a year after that, the French ravaged Ceredigion and Dyved, and Menevia and Bangor were laid waste by the Pagans. And then Bleiddud, bishop of Menevia, died; and Sulien assumed the bishopric.

1072. Then, a year after that, a second time the French devastated Ceredigion.

1073. And then, a year after that, Bleddyn, son of Cynvyn, was killed by Rhys, son of Owain, through the deceit of evil-minded chieftains and the noblemen of the Vale of Tywi–the man, who after Gruffudd his brother nobly supported the whole kingdom of the Britons. And after him Trahaiarn, son of Caradog, his cousin, ruled over the kingdom of the Gwyneddians; and Rhys, son of Owain, and Rhydderch, son of Caradog, held South Wales. And then Gruffudd, son of Cynan,23 fought against the men of Iago and of Mona, and the Gwyneddians killed Cynvrig, son of Rhiwallon. And then, a battle took place at Camddwr, between Goronwy and Llywelyn, the on side, and Rhys, son of Owain, and Rhydderch, son of Caradog, on the other side. In that year the battle of Bron yr Erw took place between Gruffudd and Trahaiarn.

1074. And then, a year after that, Rhydderch, son of Caradog, was killed by his cousin, Meirchion, son of Rhys, son of Rhydderch, through treachery.

1075. And then, a year after that, the battle of Gwennottyll took place between Llywelyn and the sons of Cadwgan, and Rhys, son of Owain, and Rhydderch, son of Caradog, who prevailed a second time.

1076. And then, a year after that, the battle of Pwll Gwdyg took place, when Trahaiarn, king of Gwynedd, prevailed, and, by the grace of God, avenged the blood of Bleddyn, son of Cynvyn, who was the mildest and most merciful of the kings, and who would injure no one unless offended, and when offended, it was against his will that he then avenged the offence. He was gentle to his relations, and was defender of the orphans, the helpless, and the widows; was the supporter of the wise, the honour and stay of the churches, and the comfort of the countries; generous to all, terrible in war, and amiable in peace, and a defence to every one. And there all the family of Rhys fell, and himself became a fugutive, like a timid stag before the hounds, through the thickets and rocks. And at the end of that year Rhys, and Howel, his brother, were killed by Caradog, son of Gruffudd. And then Sulien resigned his bishopric, and it was assumed by Abraham.

1077. And then, a year after that, Rhys, son of Tewdwr, began to reign.

1078. And, a year after that, Menevia was miserably devastated by the Pagans; and Abraham, bishop of Menevia, died; and Sulien took the bishopric the second time against his inclination.

1079. And then, a year after that, the battle on Carn mountain took place, when were slain Trahaiarn, son of Caradog, the son of Gruffudd, grandson of Iago, and with him the Scots, his auxiliaries. And Gurgeneu, son of Seisyll, was treacherously killed by the sons of Rhys the Saxon. And then, in that year, William the Bastard, king of the Saxons and the French and the Britons, came for prayer on a pilgrimage to Menevia.

1080. The building of Cardiff began.

1081. One thousand and eighty-one was the year of Christ, when Sulien resigned his bishopric the third time, and Wilffre took it.

1084. A year after that, Terdelach, king of the Scots or Gwyddelians24, died.

1085. And then, a year after that, died William the Bastard, prince of the Normans, and king of the Saxons, the Britons, and the Albanians25, after a sufficiency of the glory and fame of this transient world, and after glorious victories, and the honour acquired by riches; and after him William Rufus, his son, reigned.

1087. And then, a year after that, Rhys, son of Tewdwr, was expelled from his territory and his kingdom by the sons of Bleddyn, sons of Cynvyn, to wit, Madog, and Cadwgan, and Rhirid, and he himself retreated into Ireland. And immediately afterwards he collected a fleet of the Gwyddelians, and returned again. And then the battle of Llych Crei took place, and the sons of Bleddyn were slain. And Rhys, son of Tewdwr, gave an immense sum of money to the mariners, Scots, and Gwyddelians, who had come to assist him.

1088. And then, a year after that, the shrine of St. David was taken by stealth out of the church, and was completely despoiled close to the city. And then there was a dreadful earthquake in all the island of Britain.

1089. And then, two years after that, Sulien, bishop of Menevia, the wisest of the Britons, and illustrious for his religious life, died,–after the most praiseworthy instruction of his disciples, and the most vigilant teaching of his parishes,–in the eightieth year of his age, and the twentieth but one of his consecration, on the eve of the calends of January. And then Menevia was demolished by the Pagans of the Isles. And Cedivor, son of Collwyn, died. And his son, Llywelyn, and his brothers invited Gruffudd, son of Maredudd; and Rhys, son of Tewdwr, fought against him, and near Llandydoch a battle took place between them, and Rhys was victorious, and drove him to flight, and at last slew him.

1091. One year and one thousand and ninety was the year of Christ, when Rhys, son of Tewdwr, king of South Wales, was killed by the French, who inhabited Brecheiniog; and then fell the kingdom of the Britons. And then Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn, despoiled Dyved on the second day of May. And then, two months after that, about the calends of July, the French came into Dyved and Ceredigion, which they have still retained, and fortified the castles, and seized upon all the land of the Britons. And then Malcom, son of Dwnchath, king of the Picts and Albanians,26 and Edward his son, were killed by the French. And then queen Margareet, the wife of Malcolm, prayed to God, trusting in Him, after she had heard that her husband and son were killed, that she might not survive in this mortal state; and God hearkened unto her prayer, for by the seventh day she was dead.

1092. And then, a year after that, king William Rufus, who first by a most glorious war prevailed over the Saxons, went to Normandy to keep and defend the kingdom of Robert his brother, who had gone to Jerusalem to fight against the Saracens and other barbarous nations, and to protect the Christians, and to acquire greater fame. Whilst William remained in Normandy, the Britons resisted the domination of the French, not being able to bear their cruelty, and demolished their castles in Gwynedd, and iterated their depredations and slaughters among them. And then the French led their armies into Gwynedd; and Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn, went against them, and attacked and prevailed over them, putting them to flight, and killing them with immense slaughter. And that battle was fought in the wood of Yspwys. And towards the close of that year the Britons demolished all the castles of Ceredigion and Dyved, except two, to wit, Pembroke and Rhyd y Gors. And the people and all the cattle of Dyved they brought away with them, leaving Dyved and ceredigion a desert.

1093. The ensuing year, the French devastated Gower, Cydweli, and the Vale of Tywi; and the countries remained a desert. And about the middle of harvest king William raised an army against the Britons; and after the Britons had taken to their fastnesses in the woods and glens, William returned home empty, without having gained anything.

1094. The ensuing year William, son of Baldwin, died, who founded the castle of Rhyd y Gors, by the command of the king of England. ANd after his death the custodians left the castle empty. And then the Britons of Brecheiniog, Gwent, and Gwenllwg resisted the domination of the French. And then the French directed an army against Gwent, but empty, and without having gained anything, they retreated; and in returning back the were slain by the Britons, in the place called Celli Carnant. After that the French raised an army against the Britons, meditating the devastation of the whole country; without being able to fulfil their intention, on returning back, they were cut off by the sons of Idnerth, son of Cadwgan, Gruffudd and Ivor, in the place called Aber Llech. And the inhabitants remained in their houses, confiding fearlessly, though the castles were yet entire and the garrisons in them. In that year, Uchtrud, son of Edwin, and Howel, son of Goronwy, with many other chieftains of the family of Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn, marched and fought against the castle of Pembroke, despoiled it of all its cattle, ravaged the whole country, and with an immense booty returned home.

1095. The ensuing year, Gerald the steward, to whom had been assigned the stewardship of the castle of Pembroke, ravaged the boundaries of Menevia. And then, the second time, William, king of England, assembled innumerable hosts, with immense means and power, against the Britons. And then the Britons avoided their impulse, not confiding in themselves, but placing their hope in God, the Creator of all tings, by fasting and praying, and giving alms, and undergoing severe bodily penance. For the French dared not penetrate the rocks and the woods, but hovered about the level plains. At length they returned home empty, without having gained anything; and the Britons, happy and unintimidated, defended their country.

1096. The ensuing year the French, for the third time, assembled their troops against Gwynedd, conducted by two leaders, with Hugh the Fat, earl of Shrewsbury, as chief over them; and they encamped against the isle of Mona, in the place called Aber Lliennog, where they built a castle. And the Britons, having retreated to their strongest places, according to their unusual custom, agreed in council to save Mona. And they invited to their defence a fleet that was at sea from Ireland, which had accepted gifts and rewards from the French. And then Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn, and Gruffudd, son of Cynan, left the isle of Mona, and retreated into Ireland, for fear of the treachery of their own men. And then the French entered the island, and killed some of the men of the island. And whilst they tarried there, Magnus, king of Germany, came, accompanied by some of his ships, as far as Mona, hoping to be enabled to take possession of the countries of the Britons. And when king Magnus had heard of the frequent designs of the French to devastated the whole country, and to reduce it to nothing, he hastened to attack them. And as they were mutually shooting, the one party from the sea, and the other party from the land, earl Hugh was wounded in the face, by the hand of the king himself. And then king Magnus, with sudden determination, left the borders of the country. So the French reduced all, as well great as small, to be Saxon.. And when the Gwyneddians could not bear the laws and judgments and violence of the French over them, they rose up a second time against them, having, as their commander, Owain, son of Edwin, the man who had originally brought the French to Mona.

1097. The year after that, Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn, and Gruffudd, son of Cynan, returned from Ireland. And after they had made peace with the French, and they retained part of the country; Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn, took Ceredigion and a portion of Powys; and Gruffudd obtained Mona. And then Llywelyn, son of Cadwgan, was killed by the men of Brecheiniog; and Howel, son of Ithel, went to Ireland. In that year died Rythmarch the Wise, son of bishop Sulien, the wisest of the wise among the Britons, in the forty-third year of his age; the man whose like had not appeared before ages, and it is not easy to believe or to imagine that one similar shall be found after him; and who had never received instruction from any other but his own father,–after the meetest honour of his own kindred, and after the highest praise and renewed commendation of the neighbouring nations, to wit, of the Saxons, the French, and other nations beyond the sea–with universal lamentation, all being grieved in their hearts that he died.

1098. In the ensuing year, William Rufus, king of the Saxons, who had been made king after William, his father, was killed; for, as he was on a certain day hunting, along with Henry, his youngest brother, accompanied by some of his knights, he was wounded with an arrow by Walter Tyrell, a knight of his own, who, unwittingly, as he was shooting at a stag, hit the king and killed him. And when his brother Henry saw that, he commended the body of his brother to the charge of the knights who were present, and ordered them to make a royal funeral for him, and to convey it to Winchester; and he himself proceeded to Winchester, where the treasure and royal riches of the king were deposited, which he secured; and he called to him all the family of the king. And from thence he went to London, and took possession of it, which is the chiefest and crown of the whole kingdom of England. Then the French and Saxons all flocked together to him, and by royal council appointed him king in England. And immediately he took for his wife Mahalt, daughter of Malcolm, king of Prydyn, by queen Margaret her mother. And she, by his marrying her, was raised to the rank of queen; for William Rufus, his brother, in his life time, had consorted with concubines, and on that account had died without an heir. And then Robert, their eldest brother, returned victoriously from Jerusalem. And Thomas, archbishop of York, died, and Gerard succeeded him, who had been previously bishop of Hereford, and king Henry raised him to the higher dignity of archbishop of York. And then Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, received back his archbishopric from king Henry, which he vacated in the time of king William Rufus, on account of the iniquity and cruelty of that monarch, for he could not see that he observed any of the commandments of God justly, nor the royal obligations of government.

1099. A year after that, died Hugh the Fat, earl of Caerleon upon Usk; and to him succeeded Roger, his son; though he was but young of age; the king appointed him in. the place of his fath er for so greatly he loved his father. And in that Year died Goronwy, son of Cadwgan, and Owain, son of Gruffudd.

1100. One thousand and one hundred was the year of Christ, the first decem-novennalis, when dissension arose between king Henry and Robert, earl of Shrewsbury, called de Belesme, and Ernulf his brother, the person who had obtained Dyved for his share, by ballot, and who magnificently built the castle of Pembroke. And when the king understood that they were practising deceit against him, as the report had come concerning them, he called them to him to know the truth of it. And they, not being able to trust to the king sought for an occasion to make an excuse and when they knew that the king was acquainted with their deceit and treachery, they dared not appear in his presence. They had recourse to their strong hold, and sought for assistance on every side; and invited the Britons, who were subject to them, in respect of their possessions and titles, that is to say, Cadwgan, Iorwerth, and Maredudd, sons of Bleddyn, son of Cynvyn, to their assistance. And they received them magnificently and honourably, and promised them much property, and gave them gifth, and gladdened their country With. liberty In the mean while they fortified their castles, surrounding them with thtches and wails, prepared abundance of provisions, and assembled cavaliers, giving them gifts Robert seized upon four castles, to wit, Arundel, and Bliv, and Brygge, concerning which there had been war, against which the whole deceit was perpetrated, and which he had founded contrary to the order of the king, aud Shrewubury. Ernulf seized upon Pembroke alone. Afterwards they collected troops, and called the Britons together, and collected spoils, and joyfully returned home. And whilst these things were being acted, Ernulf bethought him of making peace with the Gwyddelians, so as to receive aasistanee from them; and he sent messengers to Ireland, namely Gerald the steward and many others, to demand the daughter of Murtart, king of Ireland, in marriage, which was easily obtained; and the messengers returned delighted to their country Murtart sent his daughter and many armed ships with her to his assistance. After the earls had buoyed themselves up in pride on account of those things, they would accept no peace from the king. And then king Henry gradually assembled an army, and in the first place invested the castle of Arundel, fighting against her, and then took the castle of Bliv, and proceeded to the castle of Brygge, and encamped at a distance from it There he took counsel, in what manner he should overcome the earls or kill them, or expel them from the whole kingdom; and the result of the principal advice be obtained was, to send messengers to the Britons, and particularly to Iorwerth, son of Bleddyn, and invite and call him to his presence, and promise him more than he should obtain from the earls, and the portion he ought to have of the land of the Britons. The same the king gave to Iorwerth, son of Bleddyn, whilst the king should live, free, without homage and with out payment; and that was Powys and Ceredigion, and the half of Dyved, as the other half had been given to the son of Baldwin, with the Vale of Tywi and Gower and Cydweli. And when Iorwerth, son of Bleddyn, had repaired to the castle of the king, he sent orders to despoil the territory of Robert his lord. And the army thus sent by Iorwerth, in. fulfilling the command of Iorwerth, despoiled the territory of Robert his lord, carrying every thing away with them, ravaging the country, and collecting an immense booty. For the earl had previously commanded trust to be put in the Britons, not imagining he should experience any opposition from them; and so he had sent all his dairies and cattle and riches amongst the Britons, without reflecting upon the in sult the Britons had received from his father Roger, and from Hugh, his father’s brother, and which the Britons kept in mind. Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn, and his brother Maredudd, were still with the earl, without knowing any thing of what was passing. And when the earl had heard of the matter, he despaired, and thought he had no power left, since Iorwerth hnd gone from him; for he was the principal among the Britons, and the greatest in power; and requested a truce, that he might be enabled either to make peace with the king, or leave the kingdom altogether. In the midst of these things, Ernulf went with his men to receive his wife, and the armed fleet that was coming to his assistance; and in the mean while Magnus, king of Germany, came a second time to Mona. And after cutting down much building timber he returned back to the isle of Man; and there, according to the report, he built three castles, which theretofore be had demolished, and he filled them the second time with his own men. He then sent over to Ireland, and demanded the daughter of Murchath for his son; for that person was the chiefest of the Gwyddelians; which he joyfully obtained; and he set up that son to be king in the isle of Man; and there he remained during that winter. When earl Robert had heard of this, he despatched messengers to Magnus, but his missions were unavailing. And when the earl perceived himself hemmed in on every side, he sought permission and way from the king to quit the kingdom; and the king granted them. And he, leaving every thing, went by sea into Normandy. And then the king sent to Ernulf, requiring of him one of two things, either to quit the kingdom and follow his brother, or else to be at his will with his head in his lap. When Ernulf heard that, he was most desirous of going after his brother; so he delivered his castle to the king, and the king placed a garrison in it. After that Iorwerth, son of Eleddyn, made peace with his brother, and shared the dominion between them. A little time afterwards Iorwerth took his brother Maredudd, and confined him in the king’s prison; but made peace with his brother Cadwgan, and gave him Ceredigion and a part of Powys. Subsequently Iorwerth repaired to the king, supposing the king would keep his promise to him; but the king departing from his engagement with him, took Dyved and the castle from him, and gave them to a certain cavalier called Saer; and the Vale of Tywi, Cydwcli, and Gower he granted to Howel and Goronwy. And in that interval, Goronwy, son of Rhys, was taken through treachery, and died in his prison.

1101. In the ensuing year, when Magnus, king of Germany, had hoisted sails on a few ships, he made depredations on the shores of Britain; and when the Britons saw that, they arose from the mouths of the caves in multitudes like ants in punuit of their spoils. And when they saw the king had so few in number with him, they advanced boldly, and arranged in order of battle against him. And when the king observed that, he prepared his army, without looking upon the multitude of his enemies, and the smallness of his own number, according to the manner of the Albanians; recollecting his innumerable victories of former times, be made a disadvantageous attack. And after the battle had proceeded, and many been killed on both sides; owing tn the pressure and overpowering numbers of his foes, the king was killed. And at that time Iorwerth, son of Bleddyn, was cited to Shrewsbury, through the treachery of the king’s council. And his pleadings and claims were arranged; and on his having come, all the pleadings were turned against him, and the pleading continued through the day; and at last he was adjudged to be fineable, and was afterwards cast into the king’s prison, not according to law, but according to power. Then failed all the hope, and the fortitude, and the strength, and the happiness, of all the Britons

1102. The ensuing year Owain, son of Edwin, died after a long illness. And then Rickart, son of Baldwin, stored the castle of Rhyd y Gors; and Howel, son of Goronwy, was driven from his dominion,— the man to whom king Henry had deputed the conservancy of the Vale of Tywi and Rhyd y Gors. Upon which he colliected spoils, by burning houses and laying waste nearly all the districts, and killing many of the French who were returning home. He also raised the country on every side, and repossessed it, and the castle rem ained undisturbed, and its garrison within it. In that interval king Henry expelled the cavalier Saer from Pembroke, and granted the custody of the castle with all its boundaries to Gerald the steward, who had been under Ernulf the steward.

1103. A year after that, that year Howel, son of Goronwy, was killed, through treachery, by the French, who had the custody of Rhyd y Gors. Gwgawn, son of Memtng, the person who was nurturing a son of Howel, and whom of all men he mostly trusted, formed the plot in this wise: Gwgawn called Howel, and invited him into his house, and sent to the castle and called the French to him, and shewed them their appointed place, to wait till a certain time in the night. So they came about daybreak, and surrounded the hamlet and the house in which Howel was, and gave a shout; and with that shout Howel promptly awaked, and sought for his arms, and waked and called his companions. And the sword which he had placed on the top of his bed, and the spear at his feet, had been taken away by Cadwgan, whilst he was asleep. Howel sought for his companions to fight, supposing them to be ready; but they had fled, probably at the first hour of the night; and then he also was compelled to flee. And Gwgawn pursued him warily, till he had taken him, as he had promised. And when Gwgawn’s companions came to him, they strangled Howel; and brought him, strangled and almost dead, to the French, who, after cutting off his head, returned to the castle. In that year there was seen a star of wonderful appearance, emitting a beam behind, and of the thickness of a column, of immense light, foreboding what would be in future. For Henry, emperor of Rome, after extraordinary victories, and a most religious life in Christ, went to his rest; and his son succeeding him, after having obtained much honour and the seat of the Roman empire, was made emperor. And then Henry, king of England, sent knights to subdue Normandy, and Robert the earl, with his brother Ernulf, and Robert, earl of Bethlehem, and William of Moretania, his cousin, met them, and having prevailed over them, put them to flight. And since they could offer no resistance, they sent to the king to procure aid. And then the king himself, with a multitude of knights, and an immense army, sailed over; and then he met with the earl promptly, him and his abettors, who, overpowered by excess of numbers, took to flight, the king pursuing, until he secured him, and William his cousin, and his men. And having captured them he sent them to England, to he imprisoned; and he reduced the whole of Normandy into his own possession. Towards the close of that year were killed Meurug and Griffri, sons of Trahaiarn, son of Caradog, and Owain, son of Cadwgan.

1104. The ensuing year Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, escaped from his prison, and returned to his country; and Herwald, hishop of Llandaf, died, and was succeeded by Worgan, who was consecrated in Kent by archbishop Ancellin. Then died Edward, son of Malcolm and Alexander, his brother, possessed the kingdom in his stead.

1105. The year after that, a certain nation, not recognised in respect of origin and manners and unknown as to where it had been concealed in the island for a number of years, was sent by king Henry into the country of Dyved. And that nation seized the whole cantred of Rhos, near the efflux of the river called Cleddyv, having driven off the people completely that nation, as it is said, was derived from Flanders, the country which is situated nearest to the sea of the Britons. This was on account of the encroachment of the sea on their country, the whole region having been reduced to disorder, and bearing no produce, owing to the sand cast into the land by the tide of the sea. At last, when they could get no space to inhabit, as the sea had poured over the maritime land, and the mountains were full of people, so that all culd not dwell there on account of the multitude of men, and the scantiness of the land, that nation craved of king Henry, and besought him to assign a place where they might dwell. And then they were sent to Rhos, expelling from thence the proprietary inhabitants who thus lost their own country and place from that time until the present day. In the meanwhile Gerald, the steward of Pembroke, founded the castle of Little Cenarch, where he settled; and there he eposited all his riches, with his wife, his heirs, and all dear to him; and he fortified it with a ditch and wall, and a gateway with a lock on it. 1106. The ensuing year, Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn, prepared a feast for the chieftains of his country; and he inivited to the feast, which he made, his son Owain from Powys. And that feast he made at Christmas in honour of God. And when the feast was ended, Owain hearing that Nest, daughter of Rhys, sort of Tewdwr, and wife of Gerald the steward, was in the castle above mentioned, went, accompanied by a small retinue, to visit her as his kinswoman, and so she was: for Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn, and Gwladus, daughter of Rhiwallon, the mother of Nest, were cousins; as Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, sons of Cynvyn, were brothers, from Angharad, daughter of king Maredudd. After that, instigated by the devil, he came on a certain night to the castle, having with him a small number, about fourteen persons; and having privately excavated under the threshold, unknown to the keepers of the castle, they got over the wall and the ditch unawares into the castle, where Gerald and Nest were sleeping; and they set up a shout about the castle, and kindled a fire in the surrounding houses to burn them. Gerald awoke on hearing the shout, not knowing what to do; and then Nest said to him, ‘Go not out to the door, for there thy enemies wait for thee; but come and follow me.’ And that he did, and she conducted him to a privy, adjoining the castle, whence, it is said, he escaped. And when Nest knew that he had escaped, she cried and said to the men outside, ‘Why call ye out in vain? he is not here, whom ye seek; he surely has escaped: And when they had entered, they searched for him everywhere; and not having found him, they took Nest, with her two sons and daughter, and also another son that he had by a concubine; and spoiled and laid waste the castle. And after burning the castle, and collecting a booty, and having connexion with Nest, Owain returned to his country. But Cadwgan, his father, was not then in the country; for he had gone to Powys, to pacify those that were at variance, and had separated from Owain. And when Cadwgan became acquainted with that deed, he was sorry and displeased, because of the violation committed upon Nest, the daughter of Rhys, and also for fear king Henry should be enraged at the insult to his steward. Thereupon he returned, and endeavoured to prevail on Owain to restore to Gerald the steward, his wife and spoil; but he did not succeed. Then, through the finesse of the wife, who spoke thus to Owain, ‘If thou will have me faithful to thee, and remain with thee, send my children to their father,’ he then, from excess of love towards the wife, suffered the children to be returned to the steward. And when Rickart, bishop of London, who was steward to king Henry at Shrewsbury, heard of that affair, he thought of revenging upon Owain the insult done to Gerald the steward, and he called to him Ithel and Madog, the sons of Rhirid, son of Bleddyn, and addressed them thus: ‘Would ye that you should please king Henry, and obtain his love and support for ever, and that be should magnify and exalt you higher than, and above every one of your neighbours, and that your neighbours of your whole nation should envy you? And they answered, ‘We would!’ ‘Go ye then,’ said he, and seize Owain, son of Cadwgan, if you can; and if you cannot, expel him and his father from the country; for he has committed wrong and insult against the king, and immense loss to Gerald the steward, his particular friend, in respect of his wife and children and his cattle, and the spoil and booty; and I will also procure you faithful ac complices, to wit, Llywarch, son of the man whose brothers were killed by Owain, and Uchtryd, son of Edwin.’ And they, confiding in those promises, collected an army, and proceeded together and entered the country; and Uchtrycl sent messengers about the country, to inform the inhabitants that whoever receded to him would find protection. Sonic did recede to him; others to Arwysth others to Maelienydd; others to the Vale of Tywi and the greater number of them went to Dyved, where Gerald was in possession. And when he was intent upon destroying them, Gwalter, the high constable of Gloucester, ‘the person to whom the king had committed the government of Gloucester and defence of England, happened to come to Caermarthen, who, hearing of that, protected them. Some of them withdrew to Arwystli, and were met by the men of Maelienydd, who killed them, and those who retreated to Uchtryd escaped, and those who retreated to the Vale of Tywi were kindly received by Maredudd, son of Rhydderch. Cadwgan and Owain fled to a ship that was in Aberdovey, which a little before had arrived with merchandize from Ireland. And then Madog and his brother came to meet Uchtryd at Ithyd Cornnec, and there they encamped; and at length Uchtryd came to them; and after they had collected themselves together, they proceeded by might, and ravaged the countries until it was day. Thea Uchtryd addressed them, saying, If it be your will, that is not necessary; since Cadwgan and Owain ougin not to be slighted; for they are good and powerful men, atid brave withal, and meditate much and perhaps they may have assistance of which we are ignorant; and, therefore, it will not be prudent for us to come upon them suddenly, but in open day, with dignified cornpleteness of numbers. And by those words they gradually became pacified, so that the people of the country were enabled to escape. Ths following morning they came into the country; and seeing it laid waste, they blamed themselves, saying, ‘Lo, the flattery of Uchtryd!’ So they accused Uchtryd, and said, ‘Who would have any participation in his cunning?’ And when they had traversed every spot in the country, they found nothing except a stud belonging to Cadwgan; and having found that, they burned the houses, barns, and corn, and returned back to their nets, and then they destroyed some of the people who had fled to Llanbadarn, and others they left without being destroyed. And whilst they were thus engaged, they heard that some men were staying in the sanctuary of Dewi, at Llanddewi Brevi, in the church with the priest. Then they sent there certain wicked and reckless spirits, who defiled the churchyard and the church, and completely laid them waste; and afterwards they returned almost empty, with only an ignominious booty from the precincts of St. Dewi and St. Padarn. And after that, Owain went on a voyage to Ireland, with a few companions, and those who found it necessary to follow him; for they had been at the burning of the castle; and was kindly received by Murchath, the supreme king in Ireland; for he had been formerly with him, and had been educated with him during the war in which Mona was ravaged by the two earls, and had been seat by his brother, with presents to Murtart. And then Cadwgan went privately to Powys, and despatched messengers to endeavour to make peace with Rickart, the steward of the king, and obtained his consent to try to make his peace with the king in whatever way he could. And the king received him, and suffered him to dwell in a hamlet he had obtained with his wife, who was a Frenchwornan, the daughter of Pictet Sage. And then Madog and Ithel, the sons of Rhirid, son of Bleddyn, seized the portion of Powys belonging to Cad wgan arid his son Owain, who had unworthily governed, and who had not been at peace between themselves. In that interval, after Cadwgan had made his peace with the king, he obtained his territory, that is to say, Ceredigion, after purchasing it from the king for a hundred pounds. And when that became known, all those who had been dispersed round about returned, for it was the command of the king that no support was to be given to those who had been heretofore dwelling in Ceredigion, whether a man of the country or a stranger. And the king made the grant to Cadwgan, on condition that there should be neither communion nor friendship between him and his son Owain, and that he should not allow him to enter the country, and that he should not afford him adviee nor assistance. From that time, some of the men, who had gone with Owain into Ireland, returned, and concealed themselves, without committing any injury. And after that, Owain also returned, not to Ceredigion, but to Powys; and endevoured to send messages to the king, and none dared to forward his business to the king. Whilst that was passing, a discord arose between Madog and the French, on account of the robberies that the Saxons were committing upon the land; and thence they were committing wrongs against the king, and coming to Madog. And then Rickart the steward sent to Madog, desiring him to seize the men who had done the injury against the king: and he objected to it, and did not seize them. And thus criminal, he knew not what he could do, other than seek the friendship of Owain, son of Cadwgan; and this he obtained; and so peace was made between those who before were enemies. And they mutually pledged upon the relics that neither should be recon ciled to the king without the other, and that neither of them would betray the other. Then they wandered together wherever their destiny might lead them and burned the hamlet of some gentleman, and carried off whatsoever they could with them, whether horses or clothes, or anything else they could find.

1107. The ensuing year king Henry remembered the imprisonment of Iorwerth, son of Bleddyn, and sent a message to him to know what he would give for liberating him out of his prison; for it is wearisome to be long in prison. And he promised more than he could compass, saying that he would give every thing that he could, and that the king might demand. And then he first demanded hostages from his son Rhirid, and from among the sons of the principal men of the country; and, secondly, he demanded Ithel, son of Rhirid, his brother, and three hundred pounds of silver, in whatsoever way he might obtain it, whether in horses, or in oxen, or in any way he could procure it And then, the son of Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn, who had been born of the French woman, and whose name was Henry, was to be given up to him, and for him a hundred marks were paid. And then his country was delivered up to him, for which he paid a great deal; and then the son of Cadwgan was set at liberty. And whilst these things were passing, Owain and Madog, with their companions, committed many crime; in the country of the French, and in England; and whatsoever they obtained, whether by robbery or by force, they conveyed to the land of Iorwerth, and there they took up their abode. And then Iorwerth sent a kindly message to them, speaking to them thus, ‘God has delivered us into the hands of our enemies, and brought us down so much, that we could accomplish nothing of what might be our wish; it is interdicted to all of us Britons, to hold any intercourse with you, in respect of victuals, or drink, or aid, or support; but we must search and hunt for you in every place, and ultimately deliver you into the hands of the king, to imprison you, or to kill you, or to execute you, or to do unto you whatever he would wish. And specially has it been commanded me and Cadwgan, that we should have no fellowship with you; for no one can suppose but that a father, or an uncle, must desire the welfare of his sons and his nephews. Therefore, if we have communication with you, or in the least go contrary to the com mand of the king, we shall lose our territory, and shall be imprisoned so that we die, or we shall be killed. Wherefore, I pray you, as a friend, and command you, as your lord, and intercede with you, as a relative, that you go not into my territory, nor into the territory of Cadwgan any more, nor into the territory of other men about us; because more causes of displeasure will be sought for against us, as being blameable, than against others.’ This they treated with contempt, and frequented their territories the more; and scarcely would they avoid even the presence of their men. And Iorwerth took measures to pursue them, and collected many men, and hunted after them; and the others step by step avoided them, and in one combined body they proceeded towards the territory of Uchtryd, son of Edwin, in Meirionydd. And when that became known to the sons of Uchtryd and their tribe, who were left by Uchtryd to defend their land, they sent to Meiri onydd, ordering every body to join them to expel the men out of their land. For they had first come into Cyveiliog, where the sons of Uchtryd were stationed, who were not able to expel them; and thereupon the men of Meirionydd assembled without delay, and came to aid the sons of Uchtryd. And, as Owain and Madog were at their lodgings in Cyveiliog, they, early on the following day, purposed going into Meirionydd to take their quarters, without doing any mischief. And as they were pursuing their journey, behold the men of Meirionydd were, among the mountains and fastness, in well ordered array, coming to meet them, rushing upon them, and setting up a shout. And the others not suspecting any thing about them, fled on the first onset; and then Owain advanced. When the men of Meirionydd saw him coming bravely forward, and prepared to fight, they suddenly took to flight, and the others pursued them into their country; and they ravaged the country, and burned the houses and the corn, and killed all the cattle they could find, without taking any thing away with them. After that Madog went into Powys; and Owain with his own men returned to Ceredigion, where his father was reigning and dwelling; and he and his companions remained where he thought proper, calling to mind the coming of his father into the territory before; for his companions had gone into Dyved, to pillage the country and seize the people, and take them bound to the ships that had come with Owain from Ireland. And then they were dwelling about the borders of the country. And they went a second time to invite simpletons to augment their number, and entered the country by night, and burned it and killed every body they found therein, and pillaged others, and took others with them as prisoners, and sold them to their people, or sent them bound to their ships. After burning the houses, and killing as many as they found of the cattle, and taking all they could bring with them, they returned to Ceredigion to lodge and abide, going and coming without at all winding the affairs of Cadwgan, or the interdiction of the king. And some of them, on a time, were watching the road along which an old man of the Flemings, called William of Brabant, was travelling, and they intercepted and killed him. And then, Cadwgan and Iorwerth repaired to the court of the king, to obtain some conversation with him; and while they were there, behold the brother of the person that had been killed was present, informing the king how Owain and his companions had slain his brother. When the king heard that, he questioned Cadwgan, ‘What sayest thou concerning that?’ ‘I know not, my lord,’ replied Cadwgan. Then said the king, ‘Since thou canst not protect thy territory against the companions of thy son, to prevent them from killing my men a second time, I shall give thy territory to such as will protect it, and thou shalt remain with me under this condition, that thou tread not thy native soil; and I will support thee from my table, until I take counsel concerning thee.’ And the king allowed him daily twenty-four pence towards his expenditure; and there he continued, without being put in fetters, having his liberty to go where he pleased, except to his own country. And when Owain heard how his father had been deprived of his territory, he, with Madog, son of Rhirid, went to Ireland. After that, the king sent to Gi1bert, son of Rickert, who was brave, renowned, and powerful, and a friend of the king, and an honourable man in all his actions, desiring that he would come to him; and he came accordingly. The king said to him, Thou wert continually seeking for a portion of the land of the Britons from me, I will now give thee the land of Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn; go and possess it.’ And he accepted it with pleasure from the king; and, having collected an army in concert with his companions, he proceeded to Ceredigion, and took possession of it; and built therein two castles, one opposite to LIanbadarn, near the efflux of the river called Ystwyth, and the other contiguous to Aberteivi, at the place called Dingeraint, where earl Robert had before then founded a castle. After a little time Madog, son of Rhirid, returned from Ireland, not being able to endure the savage manners of the Gwyddelians; but Owain remained there after him for some time. Then Madog proceeded to Powys; but was not received either kindly or mercifully by his uncle Iorwerth, lest he should be deemed culpable by the king, according to law, for the misdeed, if he connected himself with his nephew in any thing; and the other, a fugitive, skulked here and there, avoiding the presence of Iorwerth. A law was made by the king that none should dare say any thing to him about Madog, or speak about him, seen or not seen. Meanwhile, Madog formed a design of laying a plot against his uncle Iorwerth; and kept up an intimacy with Llywarch, son of Trahaiarn, and they privately pledged each other, and came to that resolution.

1108. The ensuing year, when the year of Christ was one thousand one hundred and eight, Madog prepared the plot against Iorwerth, which he had previously meditated, and sought for time and opportunity to accomplish his design. When Iorwerth returned to Caereinion, Madog, with the assistance of Llywarch’s accomplices, made a night attack upon Iorwerth. They set up a shout about the house, where Iorwerth resided; and Iorwerth awoke by the shout, and bravely defended the house, aided by his companions. Then Madog set fire to the house about Iorwerth; and when the companions of Iorwerth saw that, they sallied out through the fire, and left Iorwerth in the fire. And he, seeing the house falling, attempted to get out, and his enemies recieved him on the points of their spears, greatly burnt, and killed him. And when king Henry heard that Iorwerth had been slain, he gave Powys to Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn, and was reconciled to Owain his son, and requested Cadwgan to send messengers after Owain to Ireland. Madog, and those who had joined him in killing Iorwerth, understanding that they had committed a breach of law against the king, lurked in the woods, intending to plot against Cadwgan. And Cadwgan, without intending to injure any one, as was his disposition, came to Trallwng Llywelyn, with the design of staying there, and dwelling where it was convenient, and near aiso to Madog. Thereupon Madog sent spies to learn where Cadwgan might be found; and they returned and said, that the person they were in search of was far and near. And he, with his men, immediately came upon Cadwgan; and Cadwgan, not imagining any mischief, conducted himself weakly, and would not flee, and without being able to light, all his men having fled, he being found alone was put to death. After Cadwgan had been slain, Madog sent messengers to Rickert, bishop of London, the man who sup plied the king’s place, and was governing at Shrewsbury, to request that the land should be paid to him for which the crimes had been committed. And when the bishop had maturely considered the matter, he, without making a determination, delayed answering, not out of any love to him, but knowing the manners of the people of the country, that they would all be killing one another. But the portion that had been possessed by him and Ithel his brother before was given to him. When Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, became acquainted with this, he went to the king, to request that he would give him the land of his brother Iorwerth, son of Bleddyn; and the king granted him custody of the land, until Owain, son of Cadwgan, should return to the country. In that interval Owain came, and repaired to the king, and received the land from him, by giving pledges and promising much money; und Madog, son of Rhirid, also promised much money and pledges, with conditions, in the presence of the king. And after taking securities, each of them avoided the other, unto the end of that year.

1109. The ensuing year, when the year of Christ was a thousand one hundred and nine, earl Robert, son of Roger of Bethlehem, was seized by king Henry, and imprisoned; and his son made war against the king on that account.

1110. One thousand one hundred and ten was the year of Christ, when Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, sent his family on some enterprise to the land of Llywarch, son of Trahaiarn, to make an incursion. Then it happened, as they were taking their course through the territory of Madog, son of Rhirid, behold a man meeting them, whom they seized, and they questioned him where Madog, son of Rhirid, was abiding that night; and the man at first denied that he knew; and then, after torturing and urging him, he acknowledged that he was near them. After binding the man, they sent spies to the place, and lurked till it was light the following morning. And when the morning was come, by a sudden enterprise they made an attack upon him, caught him, killed many of his men, and brought him prisoner to Maredudd, who received him gladly, and kept him in fetters. Then Owain, son of Cadwgan, who was not at home, returned; and when Owain became acquainted with the affair, he came in haste, and Maredudd delivered him into his hand; and he took him with pleasure, and blinded him. And they divided between them his share of Powys, which was Caereinion, and the third of Deuddwr and Aberrhiw.

1111. The ensuing year, when the year of Christ was a thousand one hundred and eleven, king Henry led an army against Gwynedd, and principally to Powys. After Owain had been condemned of a breach of law, Gilbert, son of Rickert, accused him before the king, saying that the men of Owain were committing robberies upon his people and his land; and the crimes committed by others were charged to the men of Owain. And the king believed that every thing spoken by the accuser was true. Meanwhile, the son of Hugh, earl of Caerleon, accused Gruffudd, son of Cynan, and Goronwy, son of Owain, and purposed by a combination to exterminate all the Britons entirely, so that they should never more bear the British name. Accordingly, king Henry collected an army out of the whole island, from the promontory of Pengwaed in Cornwall to the promontory of Blathaon in the North, against Gwynedd and Powys. And when Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, became acquainted with that, be went to seek the friendship of the king. This having been made known to Owain, he collected together all his people, and all his property, and removed into the mountains of Eryri, for that was the strongest and saftest place to make a defence against an army. In that interval the king sent out three armies; one under Gilbert, a prince of Cornwall, with the Britons of the South, and the French and English out of Dyved and all the South; and the other army was from the North and Alban, with two princes over them, to wit, Alexander, the son of Malcolm, and the son of Hugh, earl of Caerleon; and the third with himself. Then the king, with his retinue, came to the place called Mur Castell; and Alexander and the earl proceeded to Pennaeth Bachwy. In that interval Owain sent messengers to Gruffudd and his son Owain, requesting of them to make a firm peace among themselves, against their enemies, who intended utterly to destroy them, or to hem them in by the sea, so that the British name should never more be uttered. They accordingly entered into a mutual agreement that no one should make any reconciliation or union with their enemies without the other. After that Alexander, son of Malcolm, in conjunction with the earl, sent messengers to Gruffudd, son of Cynan, to request him to make peace with the king, priomising him a great deal; and cajoled him to enter into terms with them. The king also sent messengers to Owain, requiring him to make peace, and to quit the men from whom neither aid nor strength could be obtained; but Owain did not consent to that. And at the instant behold, there comes to him one, who says, ‘Be careful, and what thou doest, do it discreetly. Here Gruffudd and his son have accepted terms of peace from the son of Malcolm and the earl, they having granted him his land free, with out either tribute, or duty, or erection of a castle in it, so long as the king may live,’ And yet Owain did not consent to it. And the second time did the king resolve to send messengers to Owain, and with them his uncle Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, who, when he saw Owain, said unto him, ‘See that thou delay not coming to the king, lest others should be first to obtain the favour of the king.’ He then believed that, and so came to the king. And the king received him gladly, with great courtesy and honour, him and his retinue; Then the king said to Owain, Since thou hast willingly come to me, and since thou hast believed my messengers, I will dignify thee, and exalt thee to be the highest and the chiefest of thy nation; and I will pay thee so much that every one of thy nation shall envy thee; and I will give thee all thy land free.’ When Gruffudd became acquainted with the circumstance that Owain had made his peace with the king, he sent messengers to the king, to seek peace from him; and the king received him into terms of peace, upon payment of a large tribute. Then the king returned to England, requiring Owain to come with him, saying that he would pay him what might be just, and saying to him, ‘This I tell thee, I am going to Normandy, and if thou wilt accompany me, I will fulfil every thing I have promised thee; and I will make thee an honourable knight.’ He accordingly accompanied the king over the sea; and the king fulfilled every thing he had promised him.

1112. The ensuing year the king returned from Normandy, and Owain, son of Cadwgan, along with him. Then died Jeffrey, bishop of Menevia; and after him came a man from Normandy, called Bernard, who was advanced to be bishop of Menevia by king Henry, against the will and in contempt of all the scholars of the Britons. In that interval Gruffudd, son of Rhys, son of Tewdwr, king of South Wales, came from Ireland to Dyved, who, in his youth, had gone with some of his kindred to Ireland, where he remained until he arrived at maturity; and in the end, wearied with long estrangement, he returned to his patrimony. And he passed about two years, sometimes with Gerald, steward of Pembroke Castle, his brother in law, who had married his sister, Nest, the daughter of Rhys, son of Tewdwr, wife to the said Gerald, the steward, as before mentioned; at other times with his kindred; sometimes in Gwynedd; sometimes absent from place to place. At length he was accused to the king, and it was represented that the minds of all the Britons were with him, in contempt of the royal title of king Henry. And when Gruffudd heard of those reports he determined on going to Gruffudd, son of Cynan, to endeavour to save his life; and having sent messengers, the other promised that he would with great pleasure receive him if he came. After Gruffudd, son of Rhys, heard that, he and Howel, his brother, went to him. This same Howel had been in the prison of Ernulf, son of Roger, the lord of Castle Baldwin, to whom king William had given a part of the territory of Rhys, son of Tewdwr; and subsequently this Howel had escaped, in a manned state, with broken limbs, out of the prison. Thereupon, they and others along with them, were kindly re ceived by Gruffudd, son of Cynan. And in that interval, when the king had heard that Gruffudd, son of Rhys, had gone to Gruffudd, son of Cynan, he sent messengers to Gruffudd, son of Cynan, requesting that he would come to him; and Gruffudd obeyed, and repaired to the king. And, as is the manner of the French to deceive people by premises, king Henry promised him much if he would undertake to secure Gruffudd, son of Rhys, and send him alive to him, and if he could not secure him, to kill him, and send his head to him; and be, promising that, returued to his country. And immediately he enquired where Gruffudd, son of Rhys, resided. And it was told Gruffudd, son of Rhys, that Gruffudd, son of Cynan, had come from the king’s court, and was seeking to get him at his disposal. Then some who were dwelling with him, and wished him well, said, ‘Do thou avoid his presence, until it be known which way the report travels.’ And whilst they were telling this, behold, there comes one, saying: ‘Here are horsemen coming in haste.’ And he had scarcely passed the door, when the horsemen came in search of him; and he could do no more than flee to the church of Aberdaron for sanctuary. And when Gruffudd, son of Cynan, heard of his escaping to the church, he sent men to force him out of the church; but the bishops and the elders who owned that country, would not permit that, lest the sanctuary of the church should be violated. After he had been set at large from the church, he fled into the South, and came to the Vale of Tywi. And when those things became known, many collected to him from every side; and he made an untoward, pointless attack upon the French and the Flemings until the close of that year.

1113. The ensuing year, the Gruffudd, son of Rhys, whom we have mentioned above, made an attack, in the first battle, upon the castle that was near Arberth, and burned it. From thence he proceeded to Llanymddyvri, where there was a castle of a certain leader, called Rickert, son of Ponson, the person to whom king Henry had given Cantrev Bychan; and he essayed to breach and burn it, but was not able, for the garrison of the castle withstood him, with the aid of Maredudd, son of Rhydderch, son of Caradog, the person who held the stewardship of Cantrev Bychan under the said Rickert; the outwork of the castle, however, he burned. And after those on the tower and himself had been shooting at each other, and many of his men had been wounded with arrows, and others killed, he returned back. Afterwards he sent his companions to attack and to alarm a castle that was near Abertawy; and which belonged to an earl named Henry Beaumont. And after burning the outworks, the garrison defending the tower, and killing a few of his men, he retreated again. Hearing this, many foolish young men from every part joined him, being deceived by the desire of spoils, or seeking to repair and restore the British kingdom. But the will of man does not avail any thing unless God assists him. He committed great depredations round about him. Then the French took counsel and summoned the chieftains of the country to then, that is to say, Owain, son of Caradog, son of Rhydderch, the person to whom king Henry had given a part of Cantrev Mawr in the Vale of Tywi; and Maredudd, son of Rhydderch, whom we have mentioned above, and Rhydderch, son of Tewdwr, and his sons, to wit, Maredudd and Owain. The mother of those, the wife of Rhydderch, son of Tewdwr, was Hunydd, daughter of Bleddyn, son of Cynvyn, the chiefest of the Britons, after Gruffudd son of Llywelyn, and who were brothers by the same mother; for Angharad, daughter of Meredudd, king of the Britons, was the mother of both; and Owain, son of Caradog, by Gwenllian, daughter of the said Bleddyn. These, and many others, assembled together. The French asked them whether they were faithful to king Henry; and they answered that they were. Then the French said to them, ‘If you be as you say, show by your deeds that which you promise by your tongue: you must keep the castle of Caermarthen, which belongs to the king, each one of you in his appointed time, in this manner; Owain, son of Caradog, is to keep the castle for a fortnight, and Rhydderch, son of Tewdwr, another fortnight; and Maredudd, son of Rhydderch, son of Tewdwr, a third fortnight; and Bledri, son of Cedivor, is appointed to keep the castle of Robert, the Crook-handed, at Aber Cavwy. After settling these things, Gruffudd, son of Rhys, bethought him of sending scouts to see how to break the castle or burn it. And when he found a good opportunity of approaching the castle easily, it chanced that Owain, son of Caradog, was guarding about the castle. Then Gruffudd, son of Rhys, made a night attack upon the castle. And when Owain and his companions heard the noise and shouting of the men coming near, he and his companions suddenly arose front the house they were in, and towards the place where he heard the shout, advanced forward himself before the troop, supposing his companions to be close behind him; but they, leaving him alone, had fled, and thus he was slain there. After burning the outer ward, without entering the tower, he returned with his spoils to the accustomed woods. Thereupon the foolish youths of the country on every tide collected to him, imagining that he was to overcome every thing, because of thaf event; for there was a castle in Gower which he burned entirely, killing many men therein. And then William of London, through fear of him left his castle and all his cattle and fond riches. When that was over, as Solomon says, ‘The spirit becomes elevated against the rail of man,’ so he prepared, being swollen with pride and With the presumption of the unruly rabble, and the silly inhabitants, to arrange foolish expeditions from Dyved into Ceredigion, and to take the part opposed to equity, being invited by Cedivor, son of Goronwy, and Howel, son of Idnerth, and Trahaiarn, son of Ithel, who were near in proximity of kindred and acquaintance, and who agreed that he should have dominion. And those were with him before all the men of Ceredigion; and none could be more mischievous than that Cedivor, to the country in general, before he left Dyved, as he did, full of various nations, such as Femings, and French, and Saxons, and his own native tribe; who, though they were one nation with the men of Ceredigion, nevertheless, had hostile hearts, on account of their disquietude and discord formerly; and more than that, being in fear of offending king Henry, the man who had subdued all the sovereigns of the isle of Britain by his power and authority, and who had subjugated many countries beyond sea under his rule, some by force and arms, others by innumerable gifts of gold and silver; the man with whom no one could strive but God alone, from Whom he obtained the power. After the arrival of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, he first proceeded to Iscoed, and there he attacked a place called Blaen Porth Hodnant, which bad been built by a certain Fleming prince, named Gilbert, son of Rickert, and where the Flemings were dwelling. And after fighting through the whole of a certain day, many of the men of the town being killed, and one of his own men being killed also, and the greatest part of the town burned, without effecting any thing more, he returned back. After this the men of the country, instigated by the devil, flocked to him suddenly, and as it were of one accord. And the Saxons, who had formerly been brought by Gilbert to fill the country, which previously, from paucity of inhabitants, was proudly empty, they ravaged and killed, and the houses they pillaged and burned. And they extended their course and tumult as far as Penwedig, and surrounded the castle of Razon, the steward of Gilbert, situated in the place called Ystrad Peithyll, and they fought against it and overpowered it; and after killing many therein, tbey burned it. When night came, they encamped at the place called Glasygrug, about a mile from the church of St. Padarn; and committed indecencies in the church, and took the cattle for food for themselves out of the church. The following morning they formed a design against a castle that was at Aberystwyth, imagining that they could subdue it; and thereupon Razon the steward, who was castellaine of that castle, and whose own castle had been burned, and his men killed, moved with sorrow for his men and his loss, and trembling with fear, sent messengers by night to the castle of Ystrad Meurug, which had been before erected by Gilbert his lord, requesting the garrison there to come in haste to his assistance. And the defenders of the castle sent him as many as they could procure; and they came to him by night. The following day Gruffudd, son of Rhys, and his uncle Rhydderch, son of Tewdwr, and his sons Maredudd and Owain, indiscreetly sallied from their tents, without putting their troops in array; and without setting up ensigns, a villain host, like a company of people without counsel, and without a commander, they took their course towards the castle of Aberystwyth, where Razon the steward was with his supporters, they not knowing it, until they came to Ystrad Antarron, which was opposite the castle. The castle was situated upon the top of a bill that shelved down to the river Ystwyth, and over the river was a bridge. And as they were standing there, making engines, and devising by what means they might make a breach in the castle, the day glided away until it was aftenoon. Then the garrison, as is the manner of the French to do every thing by stratagem, sent some archers along the bridge to skirmish with them, that, in case they came imprudently over the bridge, the mailed cavalry might attack them suddenly and cut them off. And when the Britons saw the archers approaching the bridge so boldly, they indiscreetly ran to meet them, wondering that they should so confidently dare to come to the bridge. And as the one party was pressing on, and the other shooting, a mailed knight rushed violently to the bridge; and some of Gruffudd’s men came to oppose him on the bridge. He essaying to attack them, his horse broke his neck, and the horse, being wounded fell down; and then every body with spears endeavoured to kill him, but his coat of mail protected him, until some of his party came and dragged him away. And when he got up, he fled; and when his companions saw him flee, they also all fled, and the Britons pursued them almost to the declivity of the mountain. The rear body, however, did not pursue, but without seeking either bridge or ford, they took to flight. When the French, from the top of the mountain, observed these fleeing, they attacked the advanced body, and killed as many as they could find; and the throng of people was scattered about the country on every side, some having their cattle with them, others having left every thing, endeavouring to save their lives so that the whole country was left a desert. In that interval, king Henry sent messengers to Owain, son of Cadwgan, desiring that he would come to him; and he immediately came. When he was arrived, the king said to him, ‘My most beloved Owain, art thon acquainted with that thief Gruffudd, son of Rhys, who is like a fugitive before my commanders? for and because I believe thee to be a most loyal man to me, I will that thou be commander of an army, with my son, to expel Gruffudd, son of Rhys; and I will make Llywarch, son of Trahaiarn, thy companion, because I place confidence in you two; and when thou returnest back, I will properly reward thee.’ And Owain rejoiced because of those promises. So he collected an army, jointly with Llywarch, and they proceeded together to the Vale of Tywi, where it was supposed that Gruffudd, son of Rhys, was staying, as it was a wild woodland, and difficult to be traversed, and in which it was easy to rush upon enemies. When they had come to the borders of the country. all the men of Owain, and the king’s son, with their abettors, sent their troops into the woods, every one to his own spot, under this agreement, that no one was to spare his sword, either as to man, or woman, or boy, or girl; and that whomsoever they should lay bold of, they were not to refrain from slaying, or hanging, or cutting off his limbs. And when the common people of the country heard that, they sought in what manner they could obtain safety; and so they became scattered, some lurking in the woods, others fleeing to other countries; others seeking protection from the nearest castles, out of which they had come, as it is said in a British proverb, ‘The dog will lick the weapon with which he is wounded.’ After the army bad been dispersed amid the woods, it happened that Owain, and with him a small number, about ninety men, entered the woods, and looking if they could see tracks of people in flight, lo! they discovered tracks of men and cattle in the direction of the castle of Caermarthan, where they had made their peace. And he pursued them to the vicinity of the castle; and having taken them there, he returned to his conipanions. In the mean while it happened that an army of Flemings was coming from Rhos to Caermarthen, to meet the son of the king, and Gerald the steward with them; when those who had fled were seen coming with a cry to the castle, and relating their having been pillaged and robbed by Owain, son of Cadwgan. When the Flemings heard that, they were kindled with hateful grudge against Owain, on account of the frequent vexations formerly caused to them by the friends of Owain; and incited by Gerald the steward, the man whose castle had been burned by Owain, and whose wife Nest had been violently carried away, with spoils and booty, they went in pursuit. Not expecting any opposition, Owain took his course slowly; and they, in pursuing him, came speedily to the spot where he was with his booty. When the companions of Owain saw an immense multitude pursuing them, they said to him, ‘Behold a multitude pursuing us, without our being able to oppose them.’ And he replied to them, ‘Fear not,’ said he, ‘for they are the troops of the Flemings.’ And after he had said that, being in no way disturbed, he attacked them; and they bore the assault bravely. After discharging arrows on both sides, Owain fell wounded, and when he had fallen, his companions fled away. When Llywarch, son of Trahaiarn, heard that, he returned with his men to his own country. After his death his brothers held his share of Powys, except what Owain had formerly taken from Maredudd, son of Bleddyn; to wit, Caereinion, which before then was the property of Madog, son of Rhirid. And these are the names of his brothers, to wit, Madog, son of Cadwgan, by Gwenllian, daughter of Gruffudd, son of Cynan; and Einon, son of Cadwgan, by Sanan, daughter of Dyvnwal; and the third was Gwrgant, son of Cadwgan, by Ellyw, daughter of Cedivor, son of Collwyn, the man who was supreme lord over the country of Dyved; the fourth was Henry, son of Cadwgan, by the French woman, his wife, daughter of Pictot, a French prince, and by her he had another son named Gruffudd; the sixth was Meredudd, by Euron, daughter of Heoldyw, son of Cadwgan, the son of Elstan. After that, Einon, son of Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn, and Gruffudd, son of Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, joined together to make an attack upon the castle of Uchtryd, son of Edwin, who was cousin to king Bleddyn, for Iweryd, the mother of Owain and Uchtryd, the sons of Edwin, king of Tegeingl, and Bleddyn, son of Cynvyn, were sister and brother, by the same father, but not by the same mother; as Angharad, daughter of Maredudd, son of Owain, was the mother of Bleddyn; and Cynvyn, son of Gwerystan, was the father of both. And the castle, of which we have spoken, was at Cymmer in Meirionydd; for Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn, had given Meirionydd and Cyveiliog to Uchtryd, son of Edwin, under an agreement that he should be faithful to him and to his sons, and come to his assistance against all his enemies; but he was an adversary and hostile to Cadwgan and his sons. It was when he lost Owain, not supposing that the sons of Cadwgan could accomplish any thing, that he made the said castle; and the others, mentioned by us above, in a pique, attacked the castle and burned it. And after some of the garrison had fled, and some had come to them in peace, they obtained Meirionydd, Cyveiliog, and Penllyn, and divided them among them; Cyveiliog came to Gruffudd, son of Maredudd, with Mawddwy and half of Penllyn; Meirionydd, and the other half of Penllyn, to the sons of Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn. In the mean while the year terminated vexatiously and untowardly to every body.

1114. The ensuing year, Gilbert, son of Rickert, died of a long languishinent and illness. And king Henry remained in Normandy, because a war existed between him and the king of France. And thus ended that year.

1115. The ensuing year a dissension arose between Howel, son of Ithel, who was lord of Rhos and Rhyvoniog, and the sons of Owain, son of Edwin, namely, Goronwy, Rhirid, and Llywarch, and the other brothers. And Howel sent messengers to Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, and to the sons of Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn, namely, Madog aad Einon, requesting them to come to his assistance, because by their protection and support he held that portion of the country, which had come to his share. They, when they heard that he was oppressed by the sons of Owain, collected their men and their friends together, as many as they found prepared, about four hundred men; and went against him to the vale of Clwyd, which was a district belonging to them. And the others assembled their men along with their uncle Uchtryd, bringing with them the French from Caerleon to aid them; and they met Howel and Maredudd, and the sons of Cadwgan, with their auxiliaries. When the battle had commenced, they fought bitterly on both sides; and in the end, the sons of Owain and their friends took to flight after the slaughter of Llywarch, son of Owain, and Iorwerth, son of Nudd, a brave and renowned man; and after killing many, and wounding numbers, they returned back empty. Howel, son of Ithel, having been wounded in the battle, was carried home, and at the end of the fortieth day he died. And thereupon Maredudd, and the sons of Cadwgan, returned home without daring to subdue the country, because of the French, though they had obtained the victory.

1116. The ensuing year died Murcherdach, the supreme king of Ireland, abounding in prosperity and victories.

1117. The next year after that, king Henry resolved upon returning to England, after peace had been made between him and the king of France; and he commanded the seamen to prepare ships for him. And after the ships bad been made ready, he sent his two sons in one of the ships;—one of them born of the queen, his married wife, of whom he entertained the paternal hope that he would reign as king after his father; the other son was by his concubine; also one daughter, and many great men along with them, and about two hundred principal women, who were deemed most worthy of the affection of the king’s children. The best ship was assigned to them, and one which would most safely bear the sea-waves, and the maritime storms. After they had gone on board the ship at the beginning of night, the sea breakers were dreadfully agitated, being driven by the tempestuous current and broken surge, and in consequence the ship met with a rocky stone, that was concealed under the waves, unknown to the sailors, whereby the ship was broken in pieces; and the children, with the retinue that accompanied them, were drowned, so that not one escaped. The king had embarked in another ship in its rear; and though the sea-breakers were agitated by dreadful tempests, nevertheless he escaped to land; and when he understood that his sons were drowned, he was grieved. And in the mean while that year terminated.

1118. The ensuing year, king Henry married the daughter of a certain prince of Germany, as before then, after the death of his wife, the daughter of Malcolm, he had constantly accustomed himself to concubinage. When the ensuing summer came, king Henry raised an immense and cruel army against the men of Powys, namely, Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, and Einon, and Madog, and Morgan, sons of Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn. And when they heard that, they sent messengers to Gruffudd, son of Cynan, who held the isle of Mona, requesting that he would become confederate with them against the king, that they might be enabled, without fear, to guard the fastness of the country. Then he, to maintain peace with the king, said that, if they came to the borders of his dominion, he would cause them to be despoiled and plundered, and would oppose them. And when Maredudd, and the sons of Cad wgan, were made acquahited with that they took counsel; and in their counsel they resolved to guard the boundaries of their own country, and take up their defence within then And the king with his hosts drew near to the boundaries of Powys. Then Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, sent a few archers, young men, to intercept the king, in a wild woody and steep cliff, the way he was to come, so as with arrows and missiles, to cause a disturbance in the army. And it happened, at the time when these young men had come to the wild cliff that the king and his army arrived there; and these young men received the king and his army there and with very great tumult they discharged arrows and missiles among the army. And after killing many, and wounding others, one of the young men drew his bow, and discharged an arrow among the army, which struck the amour of the king opposite his heart, unknown to the man who discharged it; but the arrow did no harm to the king, from the goodness of his armour, for he was mailed, and the arrow turned and rebounded back from the armour. And the king became greatly frightened, and was almost as much astounded, as if he had been shot through. He then ordered the troops to encamp; and enquired who were those so bold as to attack him thus gallantly. They informed him, they were some young men, who had been sent by Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, that did it. He then despatched messengers to them, requesting them to come to him under a truce; and they came. He asked, who had sent them there; and they replied that it was Maredudd. He asked them if they knew where Maredudd then was; and they answered that they did know. He then requested that Maredudd would come to make peace. Thereupon Maredudd and the sons of Cadwgan cane under the king’s peace. After peace had been made between them, the king returned to England, levying ten thousand head of cattle as a tribute upon. Powys And thus that year ended.

1120. One thousand one hundred and twenty was the year of Christ, when Gruffudd, son of Rhys, son of Tewdwr, killed Gruffudd, son of Trahaiarn.

1121. The ensuing year, Einon, son of Gadwgan, died,—the person who held a part of Powys and Meirionydd, the country which he had taken from Uchtryd, son of Edwin, and which at his death he bequeathed to Maredudd, his brother; and. when he came to take posession of the country, he was expelled by Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, his uncle. And then Ithel, son of Rhirid, was liberated from the prison of king Henry; and when he came to claim a part of Powys, he obtained nothing. When Gruffudd, son of Cynan, heard that Maredudd, son of Cadwgan, had been expelled by his uncle Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, be sent Cadwalader and Owain, his sons, with a very large army into Meirionydd, and they took out of it all the men of the country, and all their property with them into Lleyn. And from thence they collected an army, intending to carry off the inhabitants of the whole country of Powys; but without being able to fulfil their purpose, they returned back. And then Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, and the sons of Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn, combined together, and ravaged the greatest part of the territory of Llywarch, son of Trahaiarn, because he had assisted the sons of Gruffudd, son of Cynan, and combined with them.

1122. The ensuing year, Gruffudd, sou of Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, slew his cousin Ithel, son of Rhirid, son of Bleddyn, in the presence of his father Maredudd. And, a little time afterwards, Cadwallon, son of Gruffudd, son of Cynan, slew his three uncles, to wit, Goronwy, Rhirid, and Meilyr, the sons of Owain, son of Edwin. For, Angharad, daughter of Owain, son of Edwin, was the wife of Gruffudd, son of Cynan; and she was the mother of Cadwallon and Owain and Cadwalader, and of many daughters. In that year, a disturbance arose between Morgan and Maredudd, the sons of Cadwgan, son of Bleddyn; and in that disturbance, Morgan killed Maredudd, his brother, with his own hands

1123. The ensuing year, king Henry returned from Normandy, having made peace with those with whom he had had dissension previously.

1124. The ensuing year, Gruffudd, son of Rhys, was expelled from the portion of land which the king had given him, after he had been innocently and undeservedly accused by the French, who were jointly dwelling with him. In the end of that year died Daniel, son of Sulien, bishop of Menevia, the man who had been arbitrator between Gwynedd and Powys, in the trouble between them; and there was none of them who could find blame or dispraise in him, for he was peaceful, and beloved by all; he was likewise the archdeacon of Powys.

1125. The ensuing year, Gruffudd, son of Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, died. And then Llywelyn, son of Owain, was blinded by his uncle, Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, brother to his grandfather, who delivered him into the hands of Blen, son of Ieuan, the man who sent him to prison to the castle of Brygge. At the end of that year, Morgan, son of Cadwgan, died at Cyprus, in returning from Jerusalem, after having taken the cross and gone to Jerusalem, on account of his having killed his brother Maredudd.

1126. The ensuing year, Maredudd, son of LIywarch, was expelled from his country; the man who killed his cousin, the son of Meurug, and who blinded his two other cousins, the sons of Griffri. It was Ieuan, son of Owain, who expelled him, and ultimately killed him.

1127. The ensuing year, Iorwerth, son of Llywarch; was killed by Llywelyn. son of Owain, in Powys. A little while afterwards, Llywelyn, son of Owain, was deprived of his eyes and testicles, by Maredudd, son of Bleddyn. In that year, Ieuav, son of Owain, was killed by the sons of Llywarch, son of Owain, his cousin. In the end of that year, Madog, son of Llywarch, was killed by his cousin Meurug, son of Rhirid.

1128. In the close of the ensuing year, Meurug, son of Rhirid, was deprived of both his eyes, and both his testicles.

1129. The ensuing year, Iorwerth, son of Owain was killed. In that year Cadwgan, son of Gruffudd, son of Cynan, was killed at Nanheudwy by his cousin Cadwgan, son of Goronwy, son of Owain, and Einon, son of Owain. A little after that Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, died—the ornament and safety and defence of all Powys, after undergoing salvatory penance of his body, and sacntity of repentance in his spirit, and the communion of the Body of Christ, and extreme unction.

1130. Four years after that, that is to say, one thousand one hundred and thirty was the year of Christ, when there were four successive years without any story to be found, that could be preserved in memory.

1134. And the ensuing year, Henry, son of William the Bastard, king of England and Wales, and of all the island besides, died in Normandy, on the third day of the month of December. And after him his nephew, Stephen of Blois, took the crown of the kingdom by force, and bravely brought all the South of England under his sway.

1135. The ensuing year, Rickert, son of Gilbert, was slain by Morgan, son of Owain. After that, Owain and Cadwalader, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Cynan, led a large and cruel army into Ceredigion ;—the men who were the ornament of all the Britons, their safety, their liberty, and their strength; the men who were two noble and two generous kings; two dauntless ones; two brave lions; two blessed ones; two eloquent ones; two wise ones; protectors of the churches, and their champions; the defenders of the poor; the slayers of the foes; the pacifiers of the quarrelsome; the tamers of antagonists; the safest refuge to all who should flee to them; the men who were pre-eminent in energies of souls and bodies; and jointly upholding in unity the whole kingdom of the Britons. They on the first onset burned the castle of Walter de Bee; and then, having moved their wings, they fought against the castle of Aberystwyth and burned it; and along with Howel, son of Maredudd, and Madog, son of Idnerth, and the two sons of Howel, to wit, Maredudd and Rhys, they burned the castle of Rickert de La Mere, and the castle of Dinerth, and the castle of Caerwedros; and afterwards they returned home. In the close of that year they came a second time into Ceredigion, having with them a numerous array of choice combatants, about six thousand fine infantry, and two thousand one hundred cavalry in armour. And to their aid came Gruffudd, son of Rhys, and Howel, son of Maredudd of Brecheiniog, and Madog, son of Idnerth, and the two sons of Howel, son of Maredudd. And all those conjointly drew up their troops at Aber Dyvi. And to oppose them came Stephen the constable of the town, and Robert, son of Martin, and the sons of Gerald the steward, and William son of Ore, and all the Flemings, and all the marchers, and all the French from Aber Nedd unto Aber Dyvi. And after joining battle, with cruel fighting on every side, the Flemings and the Normans took to flight, according to their usual custom. And after some of them had been killed, and others burned, and the limbs of the horses of others broken, and others taken captive, and the greater part, like fools, drowned in the river, and after losing about three thousand of their men, they returned exceedingly sorrowful to their country. After that, Owain and Cadwalader returned, happy and rejoicing, to their country, having obtained the victory honourably, with an immense number of prisoners, and spoils, and costly garments and arms.

1136. The ensuing year, Gruffudd, son of Rhys, died—the light and strength and gentleness of the men of South Wales. in the same year Gruffudd, son of Cynan, died—the king and sovereign and prince and defender and pacifier of all the Welsh, after many dangers by sea and land, after innumerable spoils and victories in war, after riches of gold and silver and costly garments, after collecting together into Gwynedd, his own country, those who had been before scattered into various countries by the Normans, after building in his time many churches, and consecrating them to God, and after habiting himself as a monk, and receiving the communion of the Body of Christ, and extreme unction. In that year Ieuan, high priest of Llanbadarn, died— the man who was the wisest of the wise, after lead ing his life religiously, without committing mortal sin unto his dissolution, on the third day of the calends of April. In that year also, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Cynan, came the third time into Ceredigion, and burned the castle of Ystrad Meurug, the castle of Llanstephan, the castle of Humfrey, and Caermarthen.

1137. In the ensuing year, the empress arrived in England, for the purpose of subduing the kingdom of England for Henry her son; for she was a daughter to Henry the first, son of William the Bastard. And then there was an eclipse of the sun on the twelfth day of the calends of April.

1138. The ensuing year, Cynvrig, son of Owain, was killed by the family of Madog, son of Maredudd.

1139. The year after that, Madog, son of Idnerth, died; and Maredudd, son of Howel, was slain by the sons of Bleddyn, son of Cynvyn Gwyn.

1140. The forthcoming year, Howel, son of Maredudd, son of Rhydderch, of Cantrev Bychan, was slain by the machination of Ithys, son of Howel, and he himself slew him.

1141. One thousand one hundred and forty was the year of Christ, when Howel, son of Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, was killed by some one, without its being known who killed him. And then Howel and his brother Cadwgan the sons of Madog, son of Idnerth, were slain.

1142. The year after that, Anarawd, son of Gruffudd, the hope, and strength, and glory of the men of South Wales, was killed by the family of Cadwalader—the man in whom they reposed as much confidence as he required. And when his brother Owain heard of it, he was sorry; for he had made a contract to give his daughter to Anarawd. And she would have his brother Cadwalader. Then Howel son of Owain, seized Cadwalader’s share of Ceredigion, and burned a castle of Cadwalader which was at Aberystwyth. At that time Milo, earl of Hereford, was killed by an arrow from a certain knight attached to himself, who was shooting a stag in hunting with him.

1143. The forthcoming year, when Cadwalader saw that his brother Owain was expelling him from all his territory, he collected a fleet from Ireland, and landed at Abermenai; and as leaders with him were Otter, and the son of Turkyll, and the son of Cherulf. In the meanwhile Owain and Cadwalader were reconciled, as became brothers, and it was through the advice of the good men that they were pacified. And when that became known, the Germans blinded Cadwalader; and he agreed to give them two thousand bondmen; and thus did he liberate himself from them. And when Owain heard it, and that his brother was free, he became outrageous against them, and attacked them without mercy; and when some were killed, and others taken and confined, they ignominiously escaped by flight to Dublin. In that year, some pilgrims from Wales were drowned on the sea of Greece, in going with the cross to Jerusalem. That same year, Hugh, eon of Raulf, repaired the castle of Gemaron, and conquered Maelienydd the second time. And then the castle of Colwyn was repaired, and Elvael a second time was subjected to the French

1144. The ensuing year, Sir Hugh de Mortimer seized Rhys, son of Howel, and confined him in prison, after killing some of his men, and taking others. And then, Howel, son of Owain, and his brother, Cynan. ranged Aberteivi; and after there had been a most severe battle, and they had obtained the victory, they returned back, with an immense booty. And then earl Gilbert, son of another Gilbert, came into Dyfed, and subdued the country, and exacted the castle 0f Caermarthen, and another castle belonging to the son of Uchtryd.

1145. The ensuing year died Sulion, son of Rythmarch, son to St. Padarn, adopted son of the church, and afterwards an especial teacher, a man whose science was mature, a speaker in behalf of his nation, a pleader among arbitrators, the peace-maker of several nations, the ornament of ecclesiastical and civil decisions, on the tenth day of the calends of October, after undergoing salutary penance in his consecrated body, and taking the communion of the Body of Christ, and extreme unction. And then Meurug, son of Madog, son of Rhirid, who was called Meurug Tybodiad, was killed through the treachery of his own men. And then Maredudd, son of Madog, son of Idnerth, was killed by Hugh de Mortimer. In that year Cadell, son of Gruffudd, reduced the castle of Dinweileir, which had been erected by earl Gilbert. A little while afterwards, he and Howel, son of Owain, overcame the castle of Caermarthen in a severe struggle, after killing many of their enemies, and wounding others. A few days after that, an immense multitude of the French and Flemings came suddenly to attack the castle; and their commanders to lead them were the sons of Gerald the steward, and William, son of Aed. When Maredudd, son of Gruffudd, the man to whom was assigned the custody of the castle and its defence, saw his enemies coming so suddenly, he encouraged the men, and urged them to fight, his mind being superior to his age; for though he was young of age, nevertheless, he had the achievement of a knight, and as an undaunted leader, he incited his men to fight, and himself assaulted his enemies in arms. And when his enemies observed how small was the number within defending the castle, they raised ladders against the walls on every side. He suffered his enemies to ascend towards the embrasures, and then he and his men energetically pushed back the ladders, so that the foes fell into the ditch, pulling the others to flight, many being left dead. In this was demonstrated his happy destiny in future of possessing merit for reigning in the South; for he, though a youth, overcame many tried men in combats, having with him only a small force. In the end of that year died Rhun, son of Owain, being the most praiseworthy young man of the British nation, whom his noble patents had honourably reared. For he was fair of form and aspect, kind in conversation, and affable to all; seen foremost in gifts; courteous among his family; high bearing among strangers, and fierce towards his enemies; entertaining to his friends; tall of stature, and fair of complexion, with curly yellow hair, long countenance; with eyes somewhat blue, full and playful; be had a long and thick neck, broad breast, long waist, large thighs, long legs, which were slender above his feet; his feet were long, and his toes were straight. When the report of his lameatable death came to his father Owain, he was afflicted and dejected so much, that. nothing could cheer him, neither the splendour of a kingdom, nor amusement, nor the sprightly converse of good men, nor the exhibition of valuable things; but God, Who foreseeth all things in His accustomed manner, commiserated the British nation, lest it should perish like a ship without a pilot, and preserved Owain as a. prince over it. For before insufferable sorrow had affected the mind of the prince) he was restored to sudden joy, through the providence of God. There was a certain castle called Gwyddgrug, which had been frequently attacked, without its falling; and when the liege men of Owain and his family came to fight against it, neither the nature of the place nor its strength could resist them, till the castle was burned and destroyed, after killing some of the garrison, and taking others, and putting them in prisom And when Owain, our prince, heard of that he became relieved from all pain, and from every sorrowing thought, and recovered his accustomed energy.

1146. The ensuing year, Louis, king of France, and the emperor of Germany, accompanied by an immense multitude of earls and barons and princes, took the cross and proceeded to Jerusalem. In that same year, Cadell, son of Gruffudd, and his brothers, namely, Maredudd and Rhys, and William, son of Gerald, and his brothers with them, raised an army against the castle of Gwys. And after desparing of their own strength, they called Howel, son of Owain, to their aid; for they trusted from his courageous forces, who was the readiest in conflicts, and the wisest in council, that they should obtain the victory And Howel, as be was always ambitious of fame and glory, caused to be assembled an army, and after assembling an army, the bravest and most prepared in honour of his lord, he marched toward the said castle of Gwys; and after being honourably received there by the before mentioned barons, he encamped; and all the concerns of the war were executed from his counsel and design. In that manner every body there aspired to supreme glory and victory by overcoming the castle, through his advice, with extreme emulation and fighting. And from thence Howel returned back victorious. It was not long afterwards before there was a commotion between Howel and Cynan, sons of Owain, and Cadwalader their uncle; and then Howel on one side, and Cynan on the other side, proceeded into Meirionydd, and called out the men of the country who had retired to the sanctuaries of the churches, preserving the sanctuaries and honour of the church. From thence they directed theft force towards Cynvael, the castle of Cadwalader, which Cadwalader had formerly erected, in the plate where Morvran, abbot of Whitland, was steward, who refused to do homage to them, though he was sometimes fried by severe threatenings, at other times by numberless presents and gifts offered to him; for he deemed it better to die reputably than to lead his life dishonourably. When Howel and Cynan found that, they made a violent attack upon the castle, and gained it by force; and hardly did the defenders of the castle escape through the aid of their friends, after some of their companions were killed, and others wounded. In that year died Robert, son of king Henry, the man who had maintained a war against Stephen for twelve years previously. In that same year died Gilbert, son of another Gilbert.

1147. The ensuing year died Uchtryd, bishop of Llandaf, a man of high praise, the defender of the churches, and the opposer of his enemies, in the fulness of age. And after him came bishop Nichol, son of bishop Gwrgant. In that year Bernard, bishop of Menevia, died, in the thirty-third. year of his episcopacy,—a man of extraordinary praise and piety and holiness,—after extreme exertions, upon sea and land, towards procuring for the church of Menevia its ancient liberty. And after him David, son of Gerald, archdeacon of Ceredigion, succeeded as bishop. In that year died Robert, bishop of Hereford; a man who was, according to our judgment, pious and abounding in works of charity, and the kind feeder of the poor, and the especial ornament of the churches,— fall of good days, so that the chair of such a prelate was not polluted by an unworthy persecutor. Then Gilbert, abbot of Gloucester, was ordained bishop of Hereford. In the same year there was a great in mortality in the isle of Britain.

1148. The ensuing year, Owain, son of Gruffudd, son of Cynan, built a castle in Yale. In that same year, Cadwalader, son of Gruffudd, constructed a castle at Llanrhystud entirely, and gave his share of Ceredigion to his son Cadwgan. About the close of that year, Madog, son of Maredudd, built the castle of Oswestry, and gave Cyveiliog to his nephews, Owain and Meurug, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Maredudd.

1149. The ensuing year, Cadell, son of Gruffudd, repaired the castle of Caermarthen, for the ornament and strength of his kingdom; and ravaged Cydweli. In that year, Owain, king of Gwynedd, imprisoned Cynan, his son. In the same year, Howel, son of Owain, captured his cousin, Cadvan, son of Cadwalader, and seized his land and castle. It was not long afterwards before the sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, to wit, Cadell, and Maredudd, and Rhys, came with an army into Ceredigion, and subdued it as far as Aeron. In the same year, Madog, son of Maredudd, king of Powys, through the assistance of Randulf, earl of Caerleon, prepared to rise against Owain Gwynedd; and after the people of his auxiliaries had been slain at Consyllt, the others turned their backs to flee.

1150. One thousand one hundred and fifty was the year of Christ, when Cadell and Maredudd and Rhys, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, took the whole of Ceredigion from Howel, son of Owain, except one castle that was at Pengwen in Llanvihangel. And after that they conquered the castle of Ltanrhystud, after long fighting with it. And subsequently Howel, son of Owain, obtained that castle by force, and burned it, after killing the garrison wholly. It was but a short time after that when Cadell and Maredudd and Rhys, sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, repaired the castle of Ystrad Meurug. And subsequently Cadell, son of Gruffudd, was left half dead, having been cruelly bruised by some of the men of Tenby, whilst he was hunting. A little after that, Maredudd and Rhys, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, having collected their strength, conjointly entered Gower, and fought against the castle of Aber llychwr, burning it, and devastating the country. in the same year, both of them repaired the castle of Dinweileir; and Howel, son of Owain, repaired the castle of the son of Humfrey in the vale of Calettwr.

1151 In the ensuing year, the year of Christ one thousand one hundred and fifty, Owain Gwynedd deprived his nephew Cunedda, the son of his brother Cadwallon, of his eyes and testicles. In that year, Llywelyn, son of Madog, son of Maredudd, killed Stephen, son of Baldwin. In the same year, Cadwalader was expelled from the isle of Mona by Owain his brother; and Simon, archdeacon of Cyveilog, a man of great reputation and worth, died.

1152. The ensuing year, Maredudd and Rhys, sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, led their forces to Penwedig, and fought against the castle of Howel, and demolished it. There was not much time afterwards before the sons of Rhys attacked the castle of Tenby, and by a night plot, after breaking the gate, they got possession of the castle, and delivered it into the cuthdy of William, son of Gerald. And when that was accomplished, Rhys, son of Gruffudd, with an immense host, laid waste the castle of Ystrad Cyngen. And the month of May following, Maredudd and Rhys sons of Gruffudd, jointly attacked the castle of Aberavan, and after killing the garrison and burning the castle, they brought from thence immense spoil and innumerable riches. A second time Rhys victoriously ravaged Cyveiliog. In that same year died David, son of Malcolm, king of Prydyn. In that year prince Henry arrived in England, and reigned over all England. That year Randulf earl of Caerleon, died. In that year Cadell, son of Gruffudd, went on a pilgrimage, and left all his posessions and power in the keeping of his brothers, Maredudd and Rhys, until he should return.

1153. A year after that, that same year, king Stephen died,—the man who held the kingdom of England through usurpation, after Henry the son of William the Bastard. And after him Henry, the son of the empress, came into England, and possessed the whole of England. In that year Griffri, son of Gwyn, died.

1154. The ensuing year, Maredudd, son of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, the king of Ceredigion and the Vale of Tywi and Dyved, died, in the twenty-fifth year of his age,—a man who was extremely compassionate to the poor, and of noble prowess against his enemies, and rich in righteousness. In that year died Jeffrey, bishop of Llandaf, at mass, and died Roger, earl of Hereford.

1155. The ensuing year, when Rhys, son of Gruffudd, understood that his uncle, Owain Gwynedd, was leading an army into Ceredigion, he also collected an army without delay, and came as far as Aberdovey; and there he rested, with the intention of fighting and giving battle to Owain Gwynedd and his army. And it was not long afterwards before he made a castle there. In that year, Madog, son of Meredudd, lord of Powys, made a castle at Caereinion, in the vicinity of Cymmer. In that year, Meurug, son of Gruffudd, nephew to the said Madog, escaped from his prison. It was not long after that before the church of St. Mary was consecrated at Meivod. In that same year Terdeilach, king of Conach, died.

1156. The ensuing year, Henry, son of the empress27, king of England, who was grandson of Henry, son of William the Bastard, brought an immense army into the champaign land of Caerleon, with the design of subjecting all Gwynedd to himself; and there he encamped. And then after Owain, prince of Gwynedd, had called to him his sons and his strength and his army and his power, he encamped at Basingwerk, having with him an immense host. And there he fixed an appointment for battle with tbe king, causing dykes to be raised, with the design of fighting a pitched battle with the king. When the king heard of that, he divided his army, and sent earls, many and innumerable barons, with a powerful number of armed troops along the strand towards the place where Owain was. And the king himself undauntedly, with armed troops, the most prepared for fighting, accompanying him, proceeded through the wood, called the Wood of Cennadlog, that lay between them and the place where Owain was; and David and Cynan, sons of Owain, intercepted them in the trackless wood, and fought a severe battle with the king; who after having many of his men killed, scarcely escaped into the champaign land again. And when Owain understood that the king was coming upon him from behind, and saw the earls from the other side approaching with an immense armed host, he left the place and retreated into the place called Cil Owain. And then the king collected his army together, and proceeded to Ruddlan in a rage. Then Owain encamped in front of Llwyn Pina; and from thence he harassed the king day and night. And Madog, son of Maredudd, lord of Powys, selected his position for encamping between the army of the king and the army of Owain, so as to enable him to meet the first attack made by the king. in that interval the fleet of the king tacked towards Mona; and after leaving in the ships the naked unarmed men, and the servants, the commander of the ships, with the head sailors, and the youths fit for battles, landed in the isle of Mona, and pillaged the church 0f St Mary, and the church of St. Peter, in Rhoshir, and many other churches; and because of that, God brought vengeance upon them, for on the following day there was a battle between them and the men of Mona. And in that battle the French, according to their accustomed manner, retreated, after many of them were killed, and others taken, and others drowned; and scarcely a few of them escaped to the ships, Henry, son of king Henry, and almost all the chief officers of the seamen, having been slain. When that was accomplished, the king made peace with Owain; and Cadwalader had his territory restored to him; and then the king returned to England. Then Iorwerth the Red, son of Maredudd, returned to the castle of Yale, and burned it.

1157. The ensuing year, Morgan, son of Owain Gwynedd, was killed through treachery by the men of Ivor, son of Meurug; and along with him was slain the best poet, who was called Gwrgant, son of Rhys. Then Iorwerth, son of Owain, the brother of Morgan, governed the land of Caerleon, and all the territory of Owain. After peace had been made by all the Welsh princes with the king, Rhys, son of Gruffudd, alone prepared to wage war with him. And he confederated all South Wales and all his friends, with the whole of their property, as far as the woods of the Vale of Tywi. And when the king heard of this, he sent messengers to Rhys, to inform him that it would be well for him to repair to the court of the king, before he brought England and Wales and France about his head; and that there was none excepting himself in opposition to the king. After having taken counsel with his good men, he went to the king’s court, and there he was compelled, against his will, to make peace with the king, under the stipulation of receiving the Cantrev Mawr, and such other cantrev as the king should be pleased to give him, whole and. not scattered. Yet the king did not adhere to this, but gave him a piece of land in the territories of each out of several barons. And though Rhys understood that deceit, he accepted those portions, and held them. peaceably. And in that interval, though Roger, earl of Clare, was intent upon entering Ceredigion, nevertheless, he dared not, before Rhys had made peace with the king. Afterwards, on a certain day before the calends of June, he came to Ystrad Meurug, and the day following the calends of June, he stored that castle, the castle of Humfrey, the castle of Aberdovey, the castle of Dineir, and the castle of Rhystud. In the meanwhile Walter Clifford carried a booty out of the territory of Rhys, son of Gruffudd, and killed many of tho men of the country nearest to him; for the castle of Llanymddyvri was his property. When that was done, Rhys despatched messengers to the king to inform him of that; but the king would not cause satisfaction to be made to him for this. Thea the family of Rhys returned; and Rhys joined them at the castle of Llanymddyvri, and subdued the castle. Then Einon, son of Anarawd, nephew, son of his brother, to the lord Rhys, who was young of age, and manly in strength, seeing that his uncle Rhys was released from the agreement, and from every oath he had given to the king, also lamenting the subjection of his own nation, through the deceit of enemies, made an attack upon the castle of Humfrey, and slew the bravest knights, and all the garrison of the castle, and carried away with him the whole booty and spoil of the castle. And then, when Rhys, son of Gruffudd, perceived that he could not preserve any thing of what the king had given him, except what he could gain by his arms, he made an attack upon the castles that had been subdued by the earls and the barons in Ceredigion, and burned them. And when the king heard of this, he entered South Wales with an army; and after Rhys and his men had often opposed him, he returned to England; and thence he proceeded beyond sea.

1158. The ensuing year, the lord Rhys, son of Gruffudd, subdued and burned the castles which the French had erected across Dyved. In the meanwhile, he conducted his army to Caermarthen, and fought against it; and thereupon Rheinallt, son of king Henry, came against him, with a vast multitude of French and Normans and Flemings and English and Welsh. And Rhys quitted the castle, and assembled his men together upon the mountain of Cevn Rhestr. And there encamped at the castle of Dinweleir, earl Rheinallt, the earl of Bristol, the earl of Clare, two other earls, and Cadwalader, son of Gruffudd, and Howel and Cynan, with an immense host of cavalry and infantry; but not daring to approach the place where Rhys was, they returned home with unemployed hands. After that they offered a truce to Rhys, which he accepted; and he permitted his men to return to their country.

1159. The ensuing year died Madog, son of Maredudd, lord of Powys, the man who was of extraordinary celebrity, and whom God had endowed with acknowledged beauty, and filled with unmatched confidence, and adorned with bravery and fame; being humble and kind, and generous to the poor; affable to the humble; and terrible and warlike towards his foes;—after undergoing salutary penance, and receiving the communion of the Body of Christ, and extreme unction; and at Meivod, where his burial place was, he was honourably interred. It was but shortly afterwards that his son Llywelyn was killed,— the person who was the only hope of all the men of Powys. And then Cadwallon, son of Madog, son of Idnerth, seized Einon Clud his brother, and sent him to the prison of Owain Gwynedd; and Owain delivered him to the French; and by means of his friends and his family he escaped by night from Wiciew, and got his liberty.

1161. One thousand one hundred and sixty was the year of Christ, when nothing happened.28 A year after that Angharad, the wife of Gruffudd, son of Cynan, died. In that year, Meurug, bishop of Bangor, died. In the same year, Howel, son of Ieuav, son of Owain got possession of the castle of Tavalwern in Cyveiliog through treachery; and on that account, Owain Gwynedd fell into such grief, that neither the splendour of a kingdom, nor the consolation of any thing else, could assuage or draw him from his resentment. And nevertheless, though insupportable sorrow affected the mind of prince Owain, a sudden joy from the foreknowledge of God raised him up. For the same Owain moved an army into Arwystli, as far as Llandinam; and after they had obtained a vast booty, the men of Arwystli assembled together, being about three hundred men, under Howel, son of a Ieuan, their lord, to pursue after the booty as far as the bank of the Severn. And when Owain observed his enemies coming suddenly on, he incited his men to fight; and the enemies took to flight, and were killed by Owain and his men, so that scarcely a third of them escaped home. And when that joy had filled the mind a of Owain he returned to his former state, having been released from his sorrow; and he repaired the castle.

1162. The ensuing year, Caer Offa fell before Owain, son of Gruffudd, son of Madog, and Maredudd, son of Howel. In the same year king Henry moved an army against South Wales; and he came to Pencader; and after Rhys had delivered hostages to him, he returned to England. And then, Einon, son of Anarawd, was slain in his sleep by Walter, son of Llywarch, his own man; and Cadwgan, son of Maredudd, was slain by Walter, son of Rhirid. Then Rhys, son of Gruffudd, took possession of Cantrev Mawr and the castle of Dinevwr. In that year died Cedivor, son of Daniel, archdeacon of Ceredigion. And then died Henry, son of Arthen, the supreme teacher in general of all the scholars.

1163. The ensuing year, when Rhys, son of Gruffudd, saw that the king fulfilled nothing of what he had promised, and that he could not thus submit honourably, he manfully entered the territory of Roger, earl of Clare, the man on whose account his nephew Einon, son of Anarawd, had been slain; and dismantled and burned the castle of Aber Rheidiol, and the castle of the son of Gwynion, and reconquered a second time the whole of Ceredigion, iterating slaughters and conflagrations among the Flemings, and taking from them many spoils. And after that, all the Welsh combined to expel the garrison of the French altogether.

1161. The ensuing year, David, son of Owain Gwynedd, ravaged Tegeingl, and removed the people, with their cattle, along with him into the Vale of Clwyd, from all the country, except Basingwerk, the house which his father had founded. And when the king supposed that there would be an attack made upon the a castle which was in Tegeingl, he moved in army with extreme haste, and came to Rhuddlan, and purposed to erect a castle there and encamped there three nights. After that he returned into England, and collected a vast army of the choice warriors of England, Normandy, Flanders, Anjou, Gascony, and all a Prydyn, and came to Oswestry, purposing to transport and destroy the whole of the Britons. And against him there came Owain Gwynedd and Cadwalader, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Cynan, and the whole force of Gwynedd with them; also the lord Rhys, son of Gruffudd, accompanied by the whole of South Wales; and Owain Cyveiliog, and Iorwerth the Red, son of Maredudd, of Moelmant and the sons of Madog, son of Maredudd, accompanied by the whole of Powys; also the two sons of Madog, son of Idnerth, and their whole country with them. And together, united and undaunted, they came into Edeyrnion, and encamped at Corwen. And after remaining there long in their tents, without one daring to attack the other, the king became extremely enraged, and moved his army into the woods of the Vale of Ceiriog, and ordered the woods to be cut and thrown down. And there a few chosen Welshmen came bravely to oppose him, who knew not what it was to be restrained in the absence of the princes; and many of the mightiest fell on each side. And from thence the king led his army into the mountain of Berwyn and there the king encamped, with his advanced troops, in the mountains of Berwyn. And after remaining there a few days, he was overtaken by a dreadful tempest of the sky, and extra ordinary torrents of rain. And when provisions had failed him, he removed his tents and his army to the open plains of England; and, full of extreme rage, he ordered the hostages, who had been previously long imprisoned by him, to be blinded; to wit, the two sons of Owain Gwynedd, Cadwallon and Cynvrig, and Howel and Maredudd, son of the lord Rhys, and many others. After taking counsel, he removed his army to Caerleon, and there he encamped many days, until there came ships from Dublin, and other cities in Ireland, to him. And when he found the number of ships insufficient for him, he gave presents to the ships of Dublin, and discharged them; and himself and his army returned to England. The same year, the lord Rhys attacked the walla of Aberteivi and its castle, which he broke down and burned, and carried off a vast booty; and he seized the castle of Cilgerran, and took Robert, son of Stephen, and imprisoned him. In that year, by the permission of God and the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, came a convent of monks first to Strata Florida. And then died Llywelyn, son of Owain Gwynedd, the man who excelled every body in respect of bravery upon bravery, of wisdom upon wisdom, of conversation upon conversation, and of manners.

1165. The ensuing year, the French from Pembroke and the Flemings came to make a powerful attack upon the castle of Cilgerran; and after many of their men had been killed, they returned home empty handed. And a second time they fought against Cilgerran in vain, without getting the castle. In that year, Basingwerk was destroyed by Owain Gwynedd. And in the same year, Diermid, son of Murchath, was expelled from his people, and went into Normandy, to the king of England, to request him to reinstate him in his dominion, having laid his complaints before him. And in that year, Iorwerth the Red, son of Maredudd, was driven from his people and his territory in Mochnant by the two Owains. And those two Owains divided Mochnant between them; Mochnant above the cataract came to Owain Cyveiliog, and Mochnant below the cataract to Owain the Little.

1166. The ensuing year, Owain and Cadwalader, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Cynan, from Gwynedd, and Rhys, son of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, from South Wales, united against Owain Cyveiliog, and put him to flight; and they took from him Caereinion, and gave it to Owain the Little, son of Madog, son of Maredudd, of Walwern. From thence they won Tavalwern; and that was given to the lord Rhys, as it was said to have appertained to his dominion. It was not long afterwards before Owain Cyveiliog came, having an army of the French with him, against the castle of Caereinion, which the Welsh had previously erected; and having gained the castle, they broke it down and burned it, and killed all the garrison. In the close of that year, Owain and Cadwalader, princes of Gwynedd, and the lord Rhys, prince of South Wales, accompanied by their armies, came against the castle of Rhuddlan in Tegeingl; and they sat before it three months. And then they got the castle, broke it, and burned it, with another castle, Prestatyn also to the glory of the Welsh; and then every one, happy and victorious, to his own country.

1167. In the ensuing year, Gurgeneu the abbot, and Llawdden, his nephew, were slain by Cynan and Owain Gwynedd.

1168. The ensuing year, Robert, son of Stephen, was released from the prison of the lord Rhys, his friend; and Diermid, son of Murchath, took him with him to Ireland, and they landed at Lough Garmon, where they gained the castle.

1169. The ensuing year, Meurug, son of Adam of Buellt was killed, through treachery, in his sleep, by Maredudd Redhead, his cousin. In the end of that year, the month of November, died Owain Gwynedd, son of Gruffudd, son of Cynan, prince of Gwynedd, a man of great celebrity, and of the most extraordinary sagacity, nobleness, fortitude, and bravery in Wales, invincible from his youth, after numberless victories,—who never denied any one the request he made,—after undergoing penance and holy confession, and repentance, and the communion of the sacraments of the Body of Christ, and extreme unction.

1170. One thousand one hundred and seventy was the year of Christ, when David, son of Owain, killed his eldest brother Howel, son of Owain.

1171. The ensuing year, Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury was killed with swords at the instigation of Henry, king of England,—a man great for his piety, and his holiness, and his equity, and his counsel, on the fifth day after Christmas Day, in front of the altar of the Trinity, in his own chapel, at Canterbury, clothed in his episcopal robe, having the image of the cross in his hand, at the conclusion of the mass. In that year, Rickert, earl of Terstig, son of Gilbert Strongbow, having with him a powerful body of cavalry, sailed for Ireland. And in the first attack he took Port Lachi; and after having formed a friendship with king Diermid, and demanded his daughter in marriage, with his aid he got possession of the city of Dublin, through immense slaughter. In the same year, Robert, son of Llywarch, died; and Diermid, king of Leinster, died, and was buried in the city called Ferna. And in that year, a contention was engendered between the king of England and the king of France, on account of the murder of the archbishop; for the king of England had delivered, as pledges, to the king of France, Henry, duke of Burgundy, and his brother Theobald the younger, who were sons of Theobald, duke of Burgundy, and earl of Flanders, with many others, when he made a compact with the archbishop, that he would never do him an injury. And after pope Alexander had heard that the archbishop had been put to death, he sent letters to the king of France, and the other pledges, commanding them, on pain of excommunication, to compel the king of England to appear at the court of Rome, to make satisfaction for the death of the archbishop. Thereupon they became uneasy lest they should in any way treat him with contempt. And when king Henry perceived this, he began to deny that it was through his counsel the archbishop had been killed; and despatched messengers to the pope, declaring that he could not go to Rome because of those matters. In the meanwhile, a great part of the year had run out. During that transaction on the other side of the sea, the lord Rhys, son of Gruffudd, assembled an army against Owain Cyveiliog, his son in law, by his daughter with the intention of subduing him; because as often as Owain could resist the lord Rhys, he also resisted him. And Rhys compelled him to submit; and he took seven hostages from him. In that interval, the king became alarmed at the apostolical excommunication, and left the French territories, and returned to England, giving out that he would go and subdue Ireland. Accordingly, he convoked to him all the princes of England and Wales. And then the lord Rhys came to him from the place where he was at Llwyn Danet, about the feast on which was born the lady Mary29. And he entered into friendship with the king, by promising him three hundred horses, and four thousand oxen, with twenty-four hostages. After that the king proceeded to South Wales; and in this journey, upon the river Usk he took Iorwerth, son of Owain, son of Caradog, son of Gruffudd. And on that account Iorwerth, son of Owain with his two sons, Owain and Howel, who had been born to him of Angharad, daughter of Uchtryd, bishop of Llandaf, and Morgan, son of Seisyll, son of Dyvnwal, by Angharad, daughter of Owain, and sister to Iorwerth, son of Owain, and many others, destroyed the town of Caerleon, and burned all to the castle, and laid the whole country nearly waste. Then the king proceeded with a vast army into Pembroke, on the eleventh day of the calends of October30, and gave to the lord Rhys Ceredigion and the Vale of Tywi, and Ystlwyv and Euelvre. And in that summer the lord Rhys built the castle of Aberteivi, with stone and mortar, which he had previously demolished, when he took it from the earl of Clare, and a removed Robert, son of Stephen by Nest, the daughter of Rhys, son of Tewdwr. That Nest was aunt to Rhys, and Robert was his cousin; and the brothers of Robert were David, bishop of Menevia, and William the Bastard; and those were sons to Gerald the steward. And then Rhys went from the castle of Aberteivi to the castle of Pembroke, to speak with the king, on the twelfth day of the calends of October30, and that day was a Saturday. And Rhys ordered the horses, which he had promised the king, to be collected at Aberteivi, to be in readiness to be sent to the king. And on the following day, Sunday, Rhys returned; and he selected eighty-six horses, to be lent the following day to the king. And having come to the White House, he heard that the king had gone to Menevia, on a pilgrimage; and in Menevia the king made an offering of two choral caps of velvet, intended for the singers in serving God and St. David; and he also offered a handful of silver, about ten shillings. Then David, son of Gerald, who at the time was bishop of Menevia, besought the king to eat with him on that day; but the Ving declined the invitation, in order to avoid an excess of expence to the bishop. Nevertheless he came to the bishop to dinner, attended by three hundred men, and earl Rickert, a man who came from Ireland to obtain the friendship of the king, for without the consent of the king had he come from Ireland; and many others also dined there standing. Shortly after dinner the king mounted his horses; and there was heavy rain on that day, which was Michaelmas day30; and he returned to Pembroke. When Rhys heard of this, he sent the horses to the king, before hand, that he might go to the king after he had received the horses. And on the horses being brought before the king, he took thirty-six that he selected, saying, that it was not from want of them they were accepted, but to express his thanks to Rhys more than before. And after having thus pleased the king, Rhys repaired to him, and obtained grace before the king; and the king released his son Howel, who had been long before with him in England as hostage; and the king granted him time in respect of the other hostages, which Rhys was bound to deliver to the king; and also in respect of the tribute, that has been mentioned above, until the king should come from Ireland. A fleet was prepared, but the wind was not favourable for them; for it was a misty season, and then scarcely any ripe corn could be had in any part of Wales. And when the feast of pope Calixtus had come, the king ordered the ships out of the port to sea; and on that day they went on board the ships. But yet the wind was not favourable to them, and on that account he, with a small retinue, returned to land. And on the first night after that he ascended the ships, himself and all his men steering; and the following day, being Sunday, the sixteenth day of the calends of December30, with a fair gale, the ships bent their course to the land of Ireland. And there he remained that winter, without doing any injury to the people of Ireland.

1172. The ensuing year, there was a dreadful mortality among the army that was with the king in Ireland, on account of the a newness and unfermented state of wines and because of the miseries of famine; the ships with merchandise not being able to sail to them during the winter, owing to the tempestuous violence of the Irish sea. That year Cadwalader, son of Gruffudd, son of Cynan, died, in the month of March. And in the same year the king of England returned from Ireland, leaving there barons and noble knights in his stead, and this on account of the messengers that came to him from the pope and Louis, king of France. And on Good Friday he arrived at Pembroke; and there he remained during that Easter.

On Easter Monday he had an interview with Rhys, on the road, at Talacharn; and from thence he went to England. After the king had gone from Cardiff as far as Newcastle upon Usk, he sent to require Iorwerth, son of Owain, to come to an interview with him, and to discourse about peace, giving a safe conduct to himself and to his sons. And as Owain, son of Iorwerth, a finely grown and amiable young man, was preparing, by the advice of his father, and liege men, to accompany his father to the court of the king, a man of the earl of Bristol met him upon the road coming from Cardiff and killed him. And when he was killed, then his father, with his brother Howel, and many others, not trusting on that account to the king, destroyed by every means the territory of the king, as far as Hereford and Gloucester, by killing and burning and laying waste, without mercy. And then, without delay, the king proceeded to France, after appointing the lord Rhys to be justice over the whole of South Wales. In that interval, Seisyll, son of Dyvnwal, and Ieuan, son of Dyvnwal, and Rhirid were seized treacherously by the kings men, and were imprisoned in the castle of Abergavenny.

1173. The ensuing year, there was an extraordinary season of fine weather throughout the winter and spring, and the month of May, until Ascension Thursday. And on that day there arose a most violent storm in the sky, of thunder and lightning, and whirlwind, and showers of hail and rain, which broke the branches of the timber, and threw the trees to the ground. And that year, some insects came to devour the leaves of the woods, so that every kind of tree was almost withered. In that same year, and the year before it, many people and animals were lost, and not without a cause; for, in that year was born Meurug, son of the lord Rhys, son of Gruffudd of the daughter of Maredudd, son of Gruffudd, his niece, the daughter of his brother. In that interval, when king Henry the eldest was beyond the sea, his son Henry the younger, the new king, came to him to enquire what he ought to do; for, since he was king, he had many knights, and he had no means of rewarding those knights with presents and gifts, unless he received a loan from his father; and this was in the time of Lent. And his father said to him that he would give him twenty pounds a day, of the money of that country, for expenditure, and that he should not have more. And he said that he had never heard of a king being a man on pay, or under wages and that neither would he be. After the son had taken advice, he went to the city of Tours, to obtain money on loan from the burgesses of the city; and when the king heard that, he sent messengers to the burgesses, to forbid them, under pain of losing all their property, to lend any thing to his son. And without delay he sent trusty men to watch his son, lest he should go anywhere without notice. And when the son became acquainted with this, he caused the guards that were over him from the palace to be made drunk on a certain night. Leaving them drunk and asleep, he escaped, accompanied by a small retinue, to the court of the king of France, his father in law. In that interval, Rhys, son of Gruffudd sent his son Howel to the old king, beyond the sea, with the intention of abiding at the court, and serving the king, so as to merit his favour if he should live, and that the king might confide in Rhys, if he should live. The king received the son honourably, and was extremely thankful to Rhys. And then the young king harassed the territory of his father, through the aid of his father in law, and Theobald, earl of Burgundy, and the earl of Flanders. And whilst the king contended thus beyond the sea, Iorwerth, son of Owain, of Gwenllwg, began to attack Caerleon, the fifteenth day of the calends of August30, being Wednesday; and he forcibly reduced it by his power and strength. The Saturday afterwards, after having, on the previous Friday, captured the men who kept the outer court, the castle was delivered for their ransom. And after that, a second time, on the second day after the fifteenth of the month of September, Howel, son of Iorwerth, attacked Gwent Iscoed; and the day following, Friday, he subdued the whole country, except the castle, and took hostages of the chief men of the country. In that year David, son of Owain Gwynedd, subdued for himself the isle of Mona, after he had banished his brother Maelgwn, son of Owain, to Ireland.

1174. The ensuing year, David, son of Owain, got possession of the whole of Gwynedd, after he had expelled all his brothers and all his uncles. The same year, David, son of Owain, took his brother Maelgwn, and imprisoned him. In the same year, Cynan, son of Owain Gwynedd, died.

1175. In the year after that, Howel, son of Iorwerth, of Caerleon, seized Owain Pencarwn, his a uncle, unknown to his father; and after taking his eyes out of his head, he caused him to be castrated, lest he should beget issue to govern, for he would be the rightful heir to Caerleon after that. And then by a sudden attack, the Saturday following, the French got possession of Caerleon, and drove away from thence Iorwerth, and Howel his son. In that year, king Henry the elder was reconciled to Henry the younger, after vast destruction in Normandy, and its neighbouring countries. And then David, son of Owain, by treachery took Rhodri, son of Owain, his brother by the same mother and father, and confined him in strait fetters, for seeking to obtain from him a share of his fathers patrimony. And then the same king David married dame Emma the sister of the king of England, imagining that he should be able to obtain his dominion quietly and peaceably on that account. And then Rhodri escaped from the prison of his brother David; and before the end of the year, he expelled David out of Mona, and out of Gwynedd until he passed through the river Conway. And then, the lord Rhys, son of Graffudd, prepared to go to the court of the king at Gloucester, on the feast of St. James the Apostle.

And by the advice of the king he took with him all the princes of the South, who had been in opposition to the king; that is to say, Cadwallon, son of Madog, of Maelienydd, his cousin; and Einon Glud of Elvael, his son in law by his daughter; and Einon, son of Rhys of Gwerthrynion, his other son in law; and Morgan, son of Caradog, son of Iestin, by his sister Gwladus, of Glamorgan; and Gruffudd, son of Ivor, son of Meurug, of Senghenydd, his nephew by his sister Nest; and Iorwerth, son of Owain, of Caerleon; and Seisyll, son of Dyvnwal, of Gwent Uchcoed, the man who was then married to Gwladus, sister of the lord Rhys. All those princes returned peaceably to their countries, along with the lord Rhys, the man who was the most beloved friend of the king at that time, after restoring Caerleon back to Iorwerth, son of Owain. Immediately after that, Seisyll, son of Dyvnwal, was slain, through the treachery of the lord of Brecheiniog, in the castle of Abergavenny and with him Gruffudd his son, and many of the chieftains of Gwent. And then the French repaired to the court of Seisyll, son of Dyvnwal; and after seizing Gwladus his wife, they killed his son Cadwalader. And on that day there was the most miserable slaughter of the good people of Gwent. And after that most open and flagitious treachery, none of the Welsh dared trust to the French. And then Cadell, son of Gruffudd, died of a severe disease, and was buried at Strata Florida, after taking the religious habit. And then Rickert, abbot of Clerynaut, was killed in a monastery near Rheims, by the stab of a knife from a faithless monk.

1176. The ensuing year died Cynan, abbot of the White House, and David, bishop of Menevia, after whom Pyrs succeeded as bishop. And the lord Rhys held a grand festival at the castle of Aberteivi, wherein he appointed two sorts of contention; one between the bards and poets, and the other between the harpers, fiddlers, pipers, and various performers of instrumental music; and he assigned two chairs for the victors in the contentions; and these he enriched with vast gifts. A young man of his own court, son to Cibon the fiddler obtained the victory in instrumental song; and the men of Gwynedd obtained the victory in vocal song; and all the other minstrels obtained from the lord Rhys as much as they asked for, so that there was no one excluded. And that festival was proclaimed a year before it was held, throughout Wales and England and Prydyn and Ireland, and many other countries. In that year, in Lent, a council was assembled in London, for confirming the laws of the churches there, in the presence of a cardinal who had come from Rome on that business. And a dispute having been fostered between the archbishop of Canterbury and the archbishop of York, the council was thrown into confusion. For on the first day of the council the archbishop of York had secured the seat in the chair, on the right side of the cardinal, where it was due and customary for the archbishop of Canterbury to sit. The following day, when they came into the presence of the cardinal, after disputing before the whole court for their privileges there came some persons behind the archbishop of York and overturned the chair, so that the back of the archbishops head came upon the floor, with the chair upon him, and they across him, treading him with their feet, and cuffing him with their fists, while he was there so that the archbishop scarcely escaped from thence alive.

1177. The ensuing year, Einon Clud was slain; and Morgan, son of Maredudd, was slain. And then the lord Rhys erected the castle of Rhaiadr Gwy.

1178. In the ensuing year, the sons of Cynan, son of Owain Gwynedd, warred against the lord Rhys.

1179. And then Cadwallon was killed. And the society was established in the monastery of Caerleon upon Usk which is called Deuma, in the Glen of Teyrnon

1180. One thousand one hundred and eighty was the year of Christ, when pope Alexander died; and after him Lucius became pope. And then Adam, bishop of Llanelwy, died at Oxford, and was buried in the monastery of Osney.

1181. There was nothing, which was put on record, in that year

1182. The ensuing year, Randulf Do Poer, and many knights with him, were killed by the youths of Winchester

1183. The ensuing year, Henry the younger, king of England, died; and Rickert, archbishop of Canterbury, died.

1184. The ensuing year died Rhydderch, abbot of the White House; and Meurug, abbot of Cwm Hir.

1185. The ensuing year, about Lent, the patriarch of Jerusalem came to England, to request aid from the king, lest the Jews and Saracens should destroy all Jerusalem; and with a multitude of cavalry and infantry he returned back to Jerusalem. In that year, on the calends of May, the sun changed its colour, and some said there was an eclipse of it. In that year David, abbot of Strata Florida, died; and Howel, son of Ieuav, son of Owain lord of Arwystli, died, and was honourably buried at Strata Florida; and then Einon, son of Cynan, died.

1186. The ensuing year, pope Lucius died; and in his stead Urbanus the Third was consecrated pope. In the same year, about the month of July, the convent of Strata Florida removed to Rhedynog Velen in Gwynedd. And then died Peter, abbot, in the Vale of Clwyd. And then Cadwalader, son of Rhys, was privately killed in Dyved, and was buried in the White House upon Tav. In that year Ithel, abbot of Ystrad Marchell died. And then Owain, sou of Madog, was slain,—a man of great celebrity; for he was powerful and comely and amiable and generous, and a pattern of good manners—at Careghova by the two sons of Owain Cyveiliog, to wit, Gwenwynwyn and Cadwallon, and that by nocturnal treachery and plot. And then Llywelyn, son of Cadwallon, was unjustly seized by his brothers, and his eyes were taken out of his head. And then Maelgwn, son of Rhys, from the South ravaged and burned Tenby;—the man who was the a shield and strength of all the South; for his fame was most manifest, and he was comely, and beloved by all; though of middling size, he was fierce towards his enemies, amiable towards his friends, ready of gifts, victorious in war. And all the princes bordering upon him dreaded him, being like a lion in his actions, and like a dreadful lions whelp in the chase—the man who slew many of the Flemings, and put them to flight.

1188. The ensuing year, the Saracens and the Jews came to Jerusalem, took possession of the Cross, on Ash Wednesday, and subdued Jerusalem; and of as many Christians they found therein, they killed some, and took the others into captivity. And on that account Philip, king of France, and Henry, king of England, and Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, with an innumerable host of Christians, took upon them the signs of the cross of Christ.

1189. “In the ensuing year king Henry died; and after him Richard his son was crowned king—the best and bravest knight. That year the lord Rhys took possession of the castles of St. Clare and Aber Corran and Llanstephan. In that year Maelgwn, son of Rhys, the light and beauty and courtesy and shield and strength and liberty of all the South, and the terror of the Saxons, the best knight, second to Gwalchmai was seized by his father, by the advice of his brother Rhys, and was imprisoned.

1190. One thousand one hundred and ninety was the year of Christ, when Philip, king of France, and Richard, king of England, and Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, with an immense multitude of earls and barons, went to Jerusalem. That year the lord Rhys built the castle of Cydweli. And Gwenllian, daughter of Rhys, died—the flower and ornament of all Wales.

1191. The ensuing year, Gruffudd Maelor, king of Powys died—the most generous of all the princes of Wales—and was honourably buried in Meivod. That year also Gwion, bishop of Bangor, died—a man of great piety, and honour, and merit. And an eclipse of the sun occurred. The same year Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, died. And then Einion of Porth was killed by his brother. And the lord Rhys took the castle of Nyver. And Owain, son of Gruffudd son of Rhys, died at Strata Florida.

1192. The ensuing year, Madog, son of Rhys, escaped from the prison of Rhys his father the lord of Brecheiniog. And the lord Rhys took the castle of Llanuhadein. And Gruffudd, son of Cadwgan, died.

1193. The ensuing year, a certain earl seized Richard, king of England, as he was returning from Jerusalem; and he was confined in the prison of the emperor. And for his liberation, there was an extensive tax over all England; and such was its extent that there was not in the possession of churchmen or religious professors, either gold or silver, not even the sacred vessels and furniture of the churches, but was obliged to be all given into the hands of the officers of the king and the kingdom, to be applied for his ransom. That year, Rhodri, son of Owain, subjugated the isle of Mona, through the aid of the sons of Godrich, king of Man; but before the end of the year he was expelled by the sons of Cynan, son of Owain Gwynedd, his nephews. The same year, on Christmas eve, the family of Maelgwn, son of Rhys, brought missiles with them to break down the castle of Ystrad Meurug, and a they gained the castle. That year, Howel the Saxon, son of the lord Rhys, obtained the castle of Gwis, through treachery; and he captured Philip, son of Gwis, the keeper of the castle, his wife, and two sons. And when the said Howel perceived he could not hold possession of all the castles, without throwing some of them down, he permitted his family, and the family of Maelgwn his brother, to demolish the castle of Llanuhadein. And when the Flemings heard of this, they assembled unexpectedly against the two brothers, attacked them, killed many of their men, and put them to flight. And immediately afterwards the Welsh returned and assembled about the castle, and, to their satisfaction, it was razed to the ground. That year, Anarawd, son of Rhys, from a desire of worldly territory seized Madog and Howel, his brothers, and deprived them of their eyes.

1191. In that year, Maelgwn, son of Rhys, gave the castle of Ystrad Meurug to his brothers, for his hostages. And the lord Rhys built the castle of Rhaiadr Gwy the second time. That year Rhys was seized by his sons and imprisoned; and Howel the Saxon released his father, by deceiving Maelgwn, son of Rhys. And then the sons of Cadwallon demolished the castle of Nyver, which was the property of Maelgwn, and the castle of Rhaiadr Gwy. And king Richard returned from Jerusalem. And then Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, band Rhodri, son of Owain, and the two sons of Cynan, son of Owain, combined against David, son of Owain Gwynedd, and oppugned all the territory of David, except three castles.

1195. The ensuing year, Roger Mortimer came with an army into Maelienydd; and having expelled the sons of Cadwallon, he built the castle of Camaron. And then Rhys and Maredudd, the sons of the lord Rhys, subjected the castle of Dinevwr, and the castle of Cantrev Bychan, through treachery, by the consent of the men of the comots. And those were seized, through treachery, in the same year, by their father at Ystrad Meurug, and were imprisoned.

1196. The ensuing year the bishop of Bangor died. And then the lord Rhys collected an army, and attacked Caermarthen, and burned it to the earth, except the castle itself. From thence he marched with a vast army of his own men, and of the men of other lords, who were joined with him, to attack the castle of Colwyn, and compel it to surrender; and having obtained it, he burned it. And from thence he speedily marched with his army to Maes Hyvaidd, which he burned; and after burning it, on the same day, Roger Mortimer and Hugh de Say marshalled their armed forces of cavalry, equipped with mails and helmets and shields, unawares against the Welsh, in an adjoining valley. And when the magnanimous Rhys observed this, he accoutred himself, like a lion of furious heart, with a mighty hand, and gallantly attacked his enemies, and turned them to flight, pursued them, and dealt with them as of no account, though in a manly way; so that the marchers regreted extremely the excessive slaughter of their men. And then immediately, he attacked Pains castle in Elvael with missiles and engines, and compelled it to surrender. After obtaining it, there was an agreement made between him and William Bruse, in consequence of which he relinquished that castle in peace. In the same year, Henry, archbishop of Canterbury, justice of all England, having with him an assemblage of the earls and barons of England, with all the princes of Gwynedd, made an attack upon the castle of Gwenwynwyn in Trallwng Llywelyn; and it availed them not, for as they flung their engines to the top of the castle in order to get in, when they got to the breaches, they were hurled to the bottom of the fosse, so as to break their necks, and others were drowned. And after fighting severely against it with various instruments and devices of warfare, at length by wonderful science they gained the castle by sending miners to dig under it, and to make secret passages under ground. And thus the garrison was compelled to surrender; and, nevertheless, they all escaped at large, with their clothes and arms, except one, who was killed. And then before the end of that year, Gwenwynwyn collected his men together, and fought manfully against the said castle, and compelled it to surrender to him, under an agreement also of granting liberty to the garrison to depart in safety with their clothes and arms. That year, Gruffudd, abbot of Ystrad Marchell died.

1197. The ensuing year there was a dreadful season of mortality over all the isle of Britain and the borders of France, so that innumerable of the common people died, and an immense number of the gentry and nobility. And in that troublous year did Atropos32 appear from among her sisters, who were formerly called the goddesses of destinies, with her maliciously malignant powers against that illustrious prince, in respect of whom neither the histories of Ystas the historian, nor the odes of Feryll the bard33, could describe the extent of the lamentation and grief and misery that befel the whole nation of the Britons, when death, in that accursed year, broke the wheel of the destinies, to take the lord Rhys, son of Gruffudd, on the fourth day of the calends of May beneath34 its wings, under the subjected possession of death—the man who was the head and shield and strength of the South and of all Wales, and the hope and defence of all the tribes of the Britons—that man who was descended from the noblest line of kings, who was conspicuous for the extent of his race, and the energy of whose mind was assimilated with his race—the counsellor of the nobility, hostile against tyrants, the safety of the subjects, combatant upon the walls, an inciter in the wars, the arranger and ruler of the troops, the overthrower of hosts; and as a boar or a lion rushes onward, so raged his cruelty among his foes. Alas! for the glory of battles, the shield of the knights, the defence of the country, the ornament of weapons, the arm of strength, the hand of the generous ones, the eye of discrimination, the illustrator of courtesy, the summit of magnanimity, the substance of energy; like Achilles in the strength of his breast, Nestor in kindness, Tydeus in bravery, Sampson in strength, Hector in prudence, Hercules in gallantry, Paris in beauty, Ulysses in speech, Solomon in wisdom, Ajax in mind, and the foundation of all the excellencies—on the fourth of the calends of May And here are the Latin metrical verses, which were composed when the lord Rhys died:—

Nobile Cambrensis cecidit dyadema decoris,
Hoc est Resus obit, Cambria tota gemit,
Resus obit, non foma perit, sed gloria transit,
Cambrensis transit gloria, Resus obit,
Resus obit, decus orbis abit, laus quoque tepescit
Ingeniitum vivit Cambria, Resus obit.
Semper Resus obit populo quo vivus amavit.
Lugent corda, tacent corpora, Resus obit.
Resus obit, vexilla cadunt regalia signa,
Hoc jam nulla levat dextera, Resus obit.
Resus obit, ferrugo tegit galeam, tegit ensem.
Arma rubigo tegit Cambria, Resus obit.
Resus abest, inimitus adest, Resus quia non est
Jam t . . nil prodest Cambria, Resus abest.
Resus obit, populi plorant, gaudent inimici.
Anglia stat, cecidit Cambria, Resus obit.
Ora rigant elegi cunctis mea fletibus isti.
Cor ferit omne ducis dira sagitta necis.
Omnis lingua canit Reso pneconia nescit,
Laudes insignis lingua tacere ducis.
Ploratu plene vite laxantur habene,
Meta datur meri laus sine fine duci.
Non moritur sed subtraitur quia semper habetur
Ipsuis egregium nomen in orbe novum.
Camber Locrinus Reso rex Albaquenactus
Nominis et laudis inferioris erant.
Cesar et Arthurus leo fortis uterque sub armis
Nil par vel similis Resus utrique fuit.
Resus Alexander duelli pari fuit alter,
Mundum substerni glistit uterque sibi.
Occasus solis testus Resi fuit armis,
Sensit Alexandri solis in orbe manum.
Laus canit. .. sancto cantet ab ommi
Celi laus regis debita spiritui.
Penna madet lacrimis quia scribit thema doloris
Ne careat forma littera cesset ea

Here after that are the Latin metrical verses, which are in his praise on his tomb, and which were made after he had been buried:—

Grande decus tenet iste locus, si cernitur ortus,
Siquis sit finis queritur ecce cinis.
Laudis amator honoris odor dulcedinis auctor,
Resus in hoc tumulo conditur exiguo.
Cesaries qui congeries solis radiorum
Principis et facies vertitur in cineres.
Hic tegitur, sed detegitur, quia fama perhennis
Non sinit illustrem voce latere ducem.
Colligitur tumba cinis hac, sed transvolat ultra
Nobilitas claudi nestia fune brevi,
Wallia jam viduata dolet, ruitur a dolore.

After the death of the lord Rhys, his son Gruffudd succeeded him in the government of the dominion, which was held by Maelgwn his brother, when the said Maelgwn, after being banished before from his territory, came, accompanied by his men, and also by the family of Gwenwynwyn, to Aberystwyth, and subjugated the town and castle, killing many of the people, and carrying others into bondage, and taking possession of the whole of Ceredigion with its castles. And after seizing his brother Gruffudd, he sent him to the prison of Gwenwynwyn, who agreeably to his desire sent him to an English prison And then Gwenwynwyn subjugated Arwystli, and captured Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth and David son of Owain Gwynedd. That year, Owain Cyveiliog died at Ystrad Harebell, the monastery which he himself had founded after putting on the habit of religion. And then died Owain, son of Gruffudd Maelor, and Owain of Brithdir, aand Howel, son of Ieuav, son of Owain and Maelgwn, son of Cadwalader of Maelienydd. The same year, Trahaiarn the Little of Brecheiniog, an illustrious, noble, and powerful man, whose wife was niece of the lord Rhys was seized, when he was passing through Llangors to the court of William Bruse, and was cruelly fettered. And at Aberhodni he was dragged at the tails of horses through the streets to the scaffold; there his head was cut off, and he was hanged by his feet, and remained on the gallows three days, after his wife, his son, and his brother had escaped by flight.

1198. The ensuing year, Maelgwn, son of Rhys, took Aberteivi and the castle of Ystrad Meurug, after his brother Gruffudd had gone into an English prison. And then the convent of Cwm Hir removed, to settle at Cymmer, in Nannau of Meirionydd. That year, the youngest sons of the lord Rhys took possession of the castle of Dinevwr. The same year, near the feast of St. Mary Magdalen35, Gwenwynwyn meditated endeavouring the restoration of their ancient rights to the Welsh, their original property, and their boundaries. And when all the princes of Wales had agreed with him thereon, he collected a vast army, and proceeded to attack Pains castle; and after he had fought against it, without projectiles and engines of war for nearly three weeks, he was ignorant of the future issue. When the English had intelligence of that, they liberated Gruffudd, son of Rhys, whom they had in prison, and collected the strength of England to accompany him, with the intention of pacifying the Welsh. And then the Welsh would not accept peace of the English, but, after obtaining the castle, they threatened to burn the towns, and carry off their spoils; and the English, not brooking that, attacked them, and in the first battle put them to flight, making a vast slaughter of them. And then Anarawd, son of Einon son of Owain, son of Cadwallon, and Rhirid, son of Iestin, and Rhodri, son of Howel, were slain, and Maredudd, son of Cynan, was taken and imprisoned. And thus the English returned again victoriously, after being enriched with the spoils of the Welsh. That year, Gruffudd, son of Rhys, manfully got possession of his share of his territory from Maelgwn his brother, excepting two castles, namely, Aberteivi and Ystrad Meurug. As to one of them, namely, Aberteivi, Maelgwn swore upon several relics, in the presence of monks, after taking hostages for peace from Gruffudd, that he would deliver up the castle and hostages together to Gruffudd on a fixed day. And that oath he disregarded, giving up neither the castle nor the hostages; divine power, nevertheless, set the hostages free from the prison of Gwenwynwyn. That year, Pyrs, bishop of Menevia, died.

1199. The ensuing year, Maelgwn, son of Rhys, got possession of the castle of Dineirth, which Gruffudd, son of Rhys, had built; and of the men he found there some he slew, and others he imprisoned. And then Gruffudd, son of Rhys, possessed himself, through treachery, of the castle of Cilgerran. That year, as Richard, king of England, was fighting against the castle of a certain baron, who was opposed to him, he was wounded by an arrow, and of that wound he died; and then his brother John was advanced to be king.

1200. One thousand two hundred was the year of Christ, when Gruffudd, son of Cynan, son of Owain, died, after taking upon him the religious habit, at Aberconway,—the man who was known by all in the isle of Britain for the extent of his gifts, and his kindness and goodness; and no wonder, for as long as the men who are now shall live, they will remember his renown, and his praise, and his deeds. In that year, Maelgwn, son of Rhys, sold Aberteivi, the key of all Wales, for a trifling value, to the English, for fear of and out of hatred to his brother Gruffudd. The same year, Madog, son of Gruffudd Maelor founded the monastery of Llanegwestl, near the old cross in Yale.

1201. The ensuing year, Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, subdued the cantrev of Lleyn, having expelled Maredudd, son of Cynan, on account of his treachery. That year, on the eve of Whitsunday, the monks of Strata Florida came to the new church; which had been erected of splendid workmanship. A little while afterwards, about the feast of St. Peter and St. Paul, Maredudd, son of Rhys, an extremely courteous young man, the terror of his enemies, the love of his friends, being like a lightning of fire between armed hosts, the hope of the South Wales men, the dread of England, the honour of the cities, and the ornament of the world was slain at Carnwyllon; and Gruffudd, his brother, took possession of his castle at Llanymddyvri. And the cantrev, in which it was situated, was taken possession of by Gruffudd, his brother. And immediately afterwards, on the feast of St. James the Apostle36, Gruffudd, son of Rhys, died at Strata Florida, after having taken upon him the religious habit; and there he was buried. That year, there was an earthquake at Jerusalem.

1202. The ensuing year, Maredudd, son of Cynan, was expelled from Meirionydd, by Howel, son of Gruffudd, his nephew, son of his brother, and was despoiled of every thing but his horse. That year, the eighth day after the feast of St. Peter and St. Paul37, the Welsh fought against the castle of Gwerthrynion, which was the property of Roger Mortimer, and compelled the garrison to deliver up the castle, before the end of a fortnight, and they burned it to the ground. That year, about the first feast of St. Mary in the autumn, Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, raised an army from Powys, to bring Gwenwynwyn under his subjection, and to possess the country. For though Gwenwynwyn was near to him as to kindred, he was a foe to him as to deeds. And on his march he called to him all the other princes, who were related to him, to combine in making war together against Gwenwynwyn. And when Elise, son of Madog, son of Maredudd became acquainted therewith, he refused to combine in the presence of all; and with all his energy he endeavoured to bring about a peace with Gwenwynwyn. And therefore, after the clergy and the religious had concluded a peace between Gwenwynwyn and Llywelyn, the territory of Elise, son of Madog, his uncle was taken from him. And ultimately there was given him for maintenance, in charity, the castle of Crogen with seven small townships. And thus, after conquering the castle of Bala, Llywelyn returned back happily. That year, about the feast of St. Michael, the family of young Rhys, son of Gruffudd, son of the lord Rhys, obtained possession of the castle of Llanymddyvri.

1203. The ensuing year, young Rhys, son of Gruffudd subdued the castle of Llanegwad. And then died David, son of Owain, in England, after having been banished out of Wales by Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth. That year Gwenwynwyn, and Maelgwn, son of Rhys, by devices got possession of the castle of Llanymddyvri, and the castle of Llangadog; and the castle of Dineirth was completed.

1204. The ensuing year, Howel the Saxon, son of the lord Rhys, was stabbed at Cemaes, through treachery, by the men of Maelgwn, his brother, of which stab he died, and was buried at Strata Florida, in the same manner as his brother Gruffudd, after having taken upon him the habit of religion. That year, Maelgwn, son of Rhys, lost the keys of all his dominion, to wit, Llanymddyvri and Dinevwr; for the sons of his brother Gruffudd manfully won them from him. The same year, William Marshall came with a vast army to fight against Cilgerran, which he subdued.

1205. The ensuing year, Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, died,—the man who was the a eye of the pope, and the head prelate of all England. That year, Maelgwn, son of Rhys, bon the first day of Rogations in the summer instigated a certain Irishman, Abwell, to kill Cedivor, son of Griffri, a good benign man, and his four noble sons with him, who were descended of honourable lineage; for his mother was Susannah, daughter of Howel, son of Ieuav by a daughter of Madog, son of Maredudd, son of Bleddyn, son of Cynvyn.

1206. The ensuing year, cardinal John arrived in England, and collected all the bishops and abbots of England, with innumerable churchmen and religious persons, to hold a senate; and in that senate he confirmed the church law through the whole kingdom.

That year, Maelgwn, son of Rhys, constructed the castle of Abereinion. And then God bestowed an abundance of fish at Aberystwyth, so much that the like had not been before.

1207. The ensuing year, Christianity was interdicted by the pope in the whole kingdom of England, because king John had opposed the election of the archbishop of Canterbury. That year, king John banished William Bruse, and young William, his son, with their wives and grandsons, to Ireland, out of jealousy and hatred, to their disrespect and loss of property. The same year, the king seized Gwenwynwyn at Shrewsbury; and Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, took possession of all his territory, his castles, and his courts. And when Maelgwn, son of Rhys, became acquainted therewith, from fear of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, he razed the castle of Ystrad Meurug to the ground, and burned Dineirth and Aberystwyth. But Llywelyn did not desist from his purpose; for he came to Aberystwyth and repaired it, and took the cantrev of Penwedig to himself, giving the other portion of Ceredigion above Aeron to his nephews, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys. That year, Rhys the Little, son of the lord Rhys, took possession of the castle of Llangadog, without regarding the agreement which he had made with his nephews, when they delivered to him the castle of Dinevwr.

1208. The ensuing year, Rhys and Owain, sons of Gruffudd, attacked the castle of Llangadog, which they burned, killing some of the garrison, and imprisoning others.

1209. A year after that the same year, king John went with an immense army into Ireland; and he took from the sons of Hugh de Lacy their land and their a castles. After receiving homage of all in Ireland, and capturing the wife of William Bruse, and young William, his son, with his wife and his son and daughter, he returned with honour to England. He then put young William and his mother unmercifully to death in the castle of Windsor. That year, the earl of Caerleon built the castle of Dyganwy, which Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, had previously demolished, for fear of the king. And then also, that earl built the castle of Holywell; and Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, ravaged the territory of that earl. And then, after Rhys the Hoarse had made his peace with the king, he by the kings assistance obtained possession of the castle of Llanymddyvri; for the garrison, after despairing in every way, surrendered the castle, with sixteen steeds in it, on the feast day of St. Mary in September38, under an agreement that the garrison should have their bodies safe, with every thing belonging to them. That year, about the feast of St. Andrew39, Gwenwynwyn repossessed himself of his dominion, by the assistance of king John. Out of joy thereat, Maelgwn, son of Rhys, made peace with the king, without regarding the oath and engagement that existed between him and Rhys, and Owain, his nephews, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys; and he collected a vast army of French and Welsh, directing his course towards Penwedig, and came to Cilcenin, where he encamped. And then, Rhys and Owain, the sons of Gruffudd, collected three hundred men out of select families, who by night attacked the army of Maelgwn, killed many, captured others, and put the remainder to flight. And in that battle, Cynan, son of Howel, nephew to Maelgwn, and Gruffudd, son of Cynan, Maelgwn’s chief counsellor, were captured; and Einon, son of Caradog, and an immense number of others, were slain. And then, Maelgwn disgracefully fled, escaping on foot. That year, Gelart, seneschal of Gloucester, fortified the castle of Buellt, after the Welsh had previously killed many of his men. That year, on the feast of St. Thomas the Martyr40 Mahalt de Bruse, the mother of the sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, died at Llanbadarn the Great, after receiving the communion, and confession, and penance, and the habit of religion, and was buried with her husband at Strata Florida.

1210. One thousand two hundred and ten was the year of Christ, when Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, made cruel attacks upon the English; and on that account king John became enraged, and formed a design of entirely divesting Llywelyn of his dominion. And he collected a vast army towards Gwynedd, with the view of utterly destroying it. And to join his army, he summoned to him at Caerleon these princes of Wales; —Gwenwynwyn of Powys, and Howel, son of Gruffudd, son of Cynan, of Gwynedd and Madog, son of Gruffudd Maelor, and Maredudd, son of Robert, of Cydewain, and Maelgwn, and Rhys the Hoarse the sons of the lord Rhys. And thereupon, Llywelyn moved with his forces into the middle of the country, and his property to the mountain of Eryri; and the forces of Mona, with their property, in the same manner. Then the king with his army came to the castle of Dyganwy. And there the army was in so great a want of provisions, that an egg was sold for a penny halfpenny; and it was a delicious feast to them to get horse flesh; and on that account the king returned to England about Whitsuntide, with his errand imperfect, after disgracefully losing many of his men and much property. After that, about the calends of August, the king returned to Wales, his mind being more cruel and his army larger, and he built many castles in Gwynedd. And he proceeded over the river Conway towards the mountain of Eryri, and incited some of his troops to burn Bangor. And there Robert, bishop of Bangor, was seized in his church, and was afterwards ransomed for two hundred hawks. Then Llywelyn, being unable to bear the cruelty of the king, by the advice of his liege men, sent his wife, who was daughter of the king, to the king, to make peace between him and the king, in any manner she might be able. After Llywelyn had obtained safe conduct to go to and from the king, he went to him and made his peace with him, by delivering hostages to the king of the nobles of the country, with twenty thousand cattle, and forty steeds, and consigning also the midland district to the king for ever. And thereupon all the Welsh princes, except Rhys and Owain, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, made peace with the king; and the king returned victoriously, and with extreme joy, to England. And then, the king commanded those princes to take with them all the troops of Morganwg and Dyved, with Rhys the Hoarse, and Maelgwn, son of Rhys, and their forces, and to go against the sons of Rhys, son of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, to compel them to surrender themselves into his hands, or to retire into banishment out of all the kingdom. And then the seneschal of Cardiff, the man who was the leader of the army, and Rhys, and Maelgwn, sons of the lord Rhys, urged their troops and their strength, and repaired to Penwedig. And since Rhys and Owain, the sons of Gruffudd, could not withstand a power of that magnitude, and there was not a place open for them in Wales to repair to, they sent messengers to Foulke, to bring about a peace. And they made peace with him; and they consented that the king should have the territory between the Dyvi and Aeron; and Foulke built a castle for the king at Aberystwyth. And then, Rhys and Owain, the sons of Gruffudd, went, under the safe conduct of Foulke, to the court of the king; and the king received them as friends. And whilst they were repairing to the kings court, Maelgwn, son of Rhys, and his brother Rhys the Hoarse, repented of their terms with the king, and made an attack upon the new castle at Aberystwyth, and demolished it. And when Rhys and Owain, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, returned from the kings court, after making their peace with him, they entered Lower Aeron, the territory of Maelgwn, son of Rhys and killed and burned and ravaged in the district. And there a good and brave young man was slain, Gruffudd, son of Ivor; and Maredudd, son of Caradog, died.

1211. The ensuing year, as Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, prince of Gwynedd, could not brook the many insults done to him by the men of the king, who had been left in the new castle at Aberconway he confederated with the Welsh princes, namely, Gwenwynwyn, and Maelgwn, son of Rhys, and Madog, son of Gruffudd Maelor, and Maredudd, son of Robert; and rose against the king, subduing all the castles which he had made in Gwynedd, except Dyganwy and Rhuddlan; Mathraval, in Powys, made by Robert Vepont, they subdued, and whilst they were reducing that, the king, with a vast army, came to oppose them, and he himself burned it with fire. That year, Robert Vepont hanged, at Shrewsbury, Rhys, son of Maelgwn, who was a hostage to the king, not being yet seven years old. And in the same year, Robert, bishop of Bangor, died.

1212. The ensuing year, there was a battle in Spain between the Christians and Saracens. In that battle, it is said, ten thousand men, and three thousand women, fell. That year, three illustrious men, of the nation and chief princes of Wales, were hanged in England; that is to say, Howel, son of Cadwalader, and Madog, son of Maelgwn, and Meurug Barach. That year, pope Innocent absolved the three princes, namely, Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, and Gwenwynwyn, and Maelgwn, son of Rhys, from the oath of fidelity which they had given to the king of England. And he commanded them, for the pardon of their sins, to give a sincere pledge of warring against the iniquity of the king. And the interdiction of Christianity, which he had ordered five years previously in England and Wales, was remitted by the pope to the three princes before mentioned, within their dominions and to all who were united with them. And they, with one consent, rose against the king, and bravely wrested from him the midland district, which he had previously taken from Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth.

1213. The ensuing year, when young Rhys saw that he had no portion of territory, he sent messengers to the king, to beseech him, that through his power, he would cause him to have a share of his fathers inheritance. And thereupon the king sent to the seneschal of Hereford, and to Foulke, seneschal of Cardiff, commanding them to compel Rhys the Hoarse to deliver up the castle of Llanymddyvri and the district to the sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys or to retire afrom the borders of the country into exile. And after citing Rhys the Hoarse to answer to the kings commands, he said in his reply that he would not divide a single acre with young Rhys. Thereupon young Rhys became enraged, and collected a vast army out of Brecheiniog, and came in a hostile manner to the Vale of Tywi, and encamped in the place called Trallwng Elgan on the Thursday after the octave of the feast of St. Hilary41. And the following morning, being Friday, his brother Owain came to him, and Foulke, the seneschal of Cardiff, with their forces. The following day, they entered the territory of Rhys the Hoarse, arrayed their troops, and placed young Rhys with his force in the van, and Foulke with his force in the centre, and Owain, son of Gruffudd, with his force in the rear. And it was not long before Rhys the Hoarse met them; and in the attack with the first division, Rhys the Hoarse and his men were overpowered, and he retreated and fled, after having many of his men killed, and others taken. And then young Rhys went, with the intention of attacking the castle of Dinevwr; however, Rhys a the Hoarse preceded him, and strengthened his castle with men and arms; and after burning Llandeilo, Rhys a the Hoarse retired hence. Nevertheless, young Rhys invested the castle; and the following day he placed engines and inventions for attacking the castle, and placed ladders against the walls, for men to climb over the walls, and thus did he possess himself of the castle altogether, save one tower; and in that the garrison secured themselves in fighting and defending, with missiles and other engines. And outside were the archers, and crossbowmen, and miners, and horsemen, fighting against them. And thus they were compelled, before the afternoon, to surrender the castle; and they delivered three hostages, and gave up the castle, unless they should receive support by the evening of next day under an agreement to have their clothes and their arms, with the safety of their limbs; and thus it was concluded. And after they had got the castle, and subdued the land of Cantrev Mawr. Rhys the Hoarse with his wife, his sons, and family, retired to his brother Maelgwn, having strengthened the castle of Llanymddyvri with men and arms, and food and engines and other necessaries. And a second time, young Rhys went to Brecheiniog; and there he collected a vast army of Welsh and French, and proceeded to Llanymddyvri; and before they had pitched their tents, the garrison gave up the castle, on condition of safety of lives and limbs. That year, king John did penance for the wrongs he committed against the church, and recalled the archbishop of Canterbury, and the bishops and scholars, who had gone into exile, on account of the interdiction of the churches. And because of the oppressive vexation he had caused to the church, he bound himself, and his heirs, with his whole dominion of England and Ireland, to God and St. Peter and St. Paul, and the pope, and other popes successively for ever. And thereupon he did homage, swearing to pay to all the churchmen their loss, and to pay a thousand marks yearly to the church of Rome, for all vexation, and for every due service. The same year, after Rhys the Hoarse had withdrawn himself from the Welsh, and sought a second time to make peace with them, as it is said, he was then seized at Caermarthen, and put in the kings prison. In that year, Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, reduced the castle of Dyganwy and the castle of Rhuddlan.

1214. The ensuing year, king John, with a vast multitude of armed warriors, set sail for Poictou; and the earl of Flanders, and Bar, and Hainault joined him. And the earl of Sarur, with his brother, and a great number of knights, sent to them, and invited to him Otho, emperor of Rome, his nephew; and he arose to make war against Phillip, king of France. And then a terrible war was kindled between them; Otho, emperor of Rome, and the earl warring on the part of Flanders, and the French and king John harrassing on the part of Poictou. And thus on every side they were distressing the French. Then Phillip, the noble king of France, sent his son Louis to Poictou, with an army to meet the king of England. And he himself, with the French, drew towards Flanders, against the emperor. And when the emperor and the earl saw that, it was galling to them that the king of France should dare to approach them, and they angrily attacked him. And after athe fight, the victory fell to the king of Fiance; and the emperor and the earls were driven to flight, from Flanders and Bar and Hainault. And when the king of England heard of that event, he feared to carry on war any longer, and so made a truce of seven years with the king of France, and returned to England; and paid many of their losses to the clergy. And then there was a general remission to the churches over England and Wales. That year, Jeffrey, bishop of Menevia, died.

1215. The ensuing year, there was a disturbance between king John and the English of the North, and many others of the earls and barons of England, because that king John would not keep with them the old law and good customs which they had obtained from Edward and Henry, the first kings, and which he had withheld from the kingdom, when he had released himself from giving them those laws. And that disturbance extended so far that all the good men of England, and all the princes of Wales combined together against the king, so that none of them without the others would enter into peace or agreement or truce with the king, until he restored to the churches their laws and privileges, which he and his ancestors had afore time taken from them; and until he also restored to the good men of England and Wales their lands, and the castles, which he at his will had taken from them, without either right or law. And after they had been instructed by the archbishop of Canterbury, and the bishops of England, and his earls and his barons, they demanded whether he would restore the good old laws to the kingdom, but he refused them, as has been said before, from fear of them; and he took a cross; and, as before, the North men rose up against him, on one side, and the Welsh on the other side. And in the first battle, the North men took from him the city of London. And then Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, with the Welsh, invested Shrewsbury; and without opposition the town and the castle were delivered up to him. Then Giles de Bruse, a son to William de Bruse, sent his brother Robert to Brecheiniog; and the good men of Brecheiniog received him honourably; and before the end of three days he took possession of the castles of Pencelli and Abergavenny, and the White Castle, and the isle of Cynwraid. The above Giles was bishop of Hereford, and had been one of the first confederates against the king. And after that, Giles himself also went to Brecheiniog, and obtained possession of Aberhodni, and Maes Hyvaidd, and Gelli, and Blaenllyvni, and the castle of Buellt, without any opposition; Pains castle, and the castle of Colwyn, and the cantrev of Elvael attached to them, he left for Walter, son of Gruffudd, son of the lord Rhys son of Einon Clud, who had subdued them. And whilst this was going on in Brecheiniog, young Rhys, the nephew and Maelgwn, son of Rhys, his uncle, became reconciled, and they proceeded to Dyved together. And the Welsh obtained possession of all Dyved, with the exception of Cemaes, and that they ravaged, and Arberth and Maenclochog they burned. And from thence Maelgwn, and Owain, son of Gruffudd, proceeded to Gwynedd, to Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth. Young Rhys collected also an army of vast magnitude, and obtained possession of Cydweli, and Carnwyllon, and burned the castle. And from thence he drew to Gower; and he first reduced the castle of Llychwr, and afterwards he fought against the castle of Hugh, and the garrison essayed to keep the castle against him; but Rhys obtained the castle by force, passing the garrison and castle through fire and sword. The following day he marched towards the castle of Ystum Llwynarth in Senghenydd; and from fear of him, the garrison burned the town. And they, without being diverted from their purpose, proceeded to the castle of Ystum Llwynarth, and he encamped about it that night; and the following day he obtained the castle, which, with the town, he burned. And by the end of three days he reduced all the castles of Gower; and thus, happy and victorious, he returned home. And then, Rhys the Hoarse was liberated from the kings prison, after having given his son, and two other hostages for him. That year, Iorwerth, abbot of Tal y Llycheu, was made bishop of Menevia; and Cadwgan a of Llandyfai, abbot of Whitland was made bishop of Bangor. Then Giles, bishop of Hereford, made peace with the king, from fear of the pope; and on the road, going to the king he was taken ill; and he died at Gloucester, about the feast of St. Martin42; and his patrimony came to his brother Rheinallt de Bruse, who took for his wife the daughter of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, prince of Gwynedd. That year, pope Innocent the third held a general council of all Christendom at the Lateran church in Rome. And there were the laws and canons of the church renewed; and it was resolved to free Jerusalem, which the Saracens had oppressed for a long time before. That year, Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, and the Welsh princes in general, collected a vast army to Caermarthen; and before the end of five days, he obtained the castle, and razed it to the ground. And then they demolished the castles of Llanstephan and Talacharn and St. Clare. And from thence, on the eve of the feast of St. Thomas the Apostle43, they proceeded to Ceredigion, and fought against the castle of Emlyn. Then the men of Cemaes did homage to Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, and the castle of Trevdraeth was delivered to him; which, by general consent, was shattered. And when the garrison of Aberystwyth saw that they could not maintain the castle, they delivered it up to Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, on the feast of St. Stephen44; and the following day, the feast of St. John the Apostle45, the castle of Cilgerran was delivered to bim. And then Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, and all the Welsh princew that were with him, returned to their countries, happy and joyful with victory. And here are the names of the princes who were on that expedition from Gwynedd:— Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, prince of Gwynedd, and Howel, son of Gruffudd, son of Cynan, his uncle, and Llywelyn, son of Maredudd, son of Cynan; out of Powys, Gwenwynwyn, son of Owain Cyveiliog, and Maredudd, son of Robert of Cydewain, and the family of Madog, son of Gruffudd Madog, and the two sons of Maelgwn, son of Cadwallon; and out of South Wales, Maelgwn, son of Rhys, and Rhys the Hoarse, his brother, and young Rhys, and Owain, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys. And these are the names of the castles which were subjugated in that expedition; that is to say, the castle of Senghenydd, the castle of Cydweli, Caermarthen, Llanstephan, St. Clare, Talacharn, Trevdraeth, Aberteivi, and Cilgerran. And during that expedition there was a a gentle tranquillity, and fairness of winter atmosphere, such fine weather as had never been seen, or heard of before.

1216. A year after that and then there was a partition of land between Maelgwn, son of Rhys, and his brother, Rhys the Hoarse, and Rhys and Owain, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, at Aberdovey, in the presence of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, when all the Welsh princes, for the most part and all the wise men of Gwynedd were summoned thither together. And to Maelgwn, son of Rhys, were allotted three cantrevs of Dyved, that is to say, the cantrev of Gwarthav, the cantrev of Cemaes, and the cantrev of Emlyn, with Penllwynog and the castle of Cilgerran; and of the Vale of Tywi, the castle of Llanymddyvri, with two comots, namely, Hirvryn and Mallaen, and the manor of Myddvai; and of Ceredigion, the two comots of Gwynionydd and Mabwynion. And to young Rhys, and his brother Owain, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, were allotted the castle of Aberteivi, and the castle of Nant yr Ariant, with throe cantrevs of Ceredigion. And to Rhys the Hoarse were allotted, as his share the whole of Cantrev Mawr, except Mallaen, and the Cantrev Bychan, except Hirvryn and Myddvai; and to him likewise came Cydweli and Carnwyllon. In that year, Gwenwynwyn, lord of Powys, made peace with John, king of England, treating with contempt the oath and the engagement which he had plighted to the chieftains of England and Wales, and violating the homage which he had done to Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, and stirrendering the hostages that he had given thereon. And when Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, became acquainted with this, he took it heavily upon him, and sent to him bishops and abbots and other men of great authority, bearing with them the letters and charters, and the registers of the compact and homage which he had made, and laboured by every thought and affection and deed to recall him back. And when that availed him nothing, he assembled an army, calling to him most of the princes of Wales, and entered Powys, to make war upon Gwenwynwyn, and compelled him to flee into the county of Caerleon, and took possession of his whole territory to himself. That year, Louis, the eldest son of the king of France, came to England, by means of English confederates, with a great multitude, about Trinity Sunday; and king John dreaded his coming, and secured the rivers and harbours, with a vast force of armed men. And when he observed the fleet of Louis approaching the land, he took flight towards Winchester and the Vale of the Severn. Then Louis drew towards London, and there he was honourably received; and he took the homage of the earls and barons who had invited him, and began to award to all of them their legal claims. And at the end of a few days afterwards, he proceeded towards Winchester; and when king John knew this, he burned the town, and, having fortified the castle, he went away. And Louis attacked the castle, and before the end of a few days, he got the castle. And king John proceeded to the border of Wales, and came to Hereford, accompanied by many armed men. And he summoned to him Rheinallt de Bruse, and the princes of Wales, requiring them to enter into compact with him, and make peace. And when that did not avail him anything, he proceeded to Gelli and Maes Hyveidd, and burned the towns, and demolished the castles.; and after that, he burned, ravaged, and destroyed Oswestry. In that year, about the feast of the Translation of St. Benet, pope Innocent the Third died; and after him the third Honorius became pope. And then, about the feast of St. Luke the Evangelist46, king John died at Newark, and was conveyed hence to Worcester and was honourably buried at Worcester, near the grave of St. Dunstan. And immediately after the royal obsequies, his eldest son Henry, being nine years of age, was raised to the government of the kingdom; and through the commendation of some of the good people of England and its bishops, the bishop of Bath consecrated him king, by the authority of a cardinal from Rome, and the legate of the pope; and thereupon he was crowned, and received the cross. That year, Howel, son of Gruffudd, son of Cynan, being an excellent young man, and beloved by all died, and was buried at Aberconway.

1217. The ensuing year, there was a council at Oxford, held by the a co-knights of king Henry; and therein it was treated of peace and a compact between them and Louis, the son of the king of France, and the men of the North. And, since they came to no settlement, Louis sailed for France, to obtain advice of Phillip, his father, as to matters he might in future execute in England. In that interval, the men of the king rose against his allies, and made many attacks upon them. And from thence they proceeded to Winchester, and compelled the garrison to deliver the castle to them, and they took possession of the other castles, which had been delivered up to Louis, and drew to them many of the confederates of Louis. In that interval, Louis returned to England, accompanied by a small retinue. And then, on account of his coming, the North men and the French grew bolder, and proceeded to the city of Lincoln, which they got possession of, and fought against the garrison. However, the garrison defended the castle faithfully and bravely, and sent messengers to William Marshall, earl of Pembroke, the man who was then elder and chief counsellor of the kingdom, and to other good men of England, praying that assistance should be sent to them. And these, by common consent, a collected the whole strength of England, to proceed to the support of the garrison; for they deemed it better to terminate their lives worthily for the liberty of their country, than to bear with the unjust laws and unaccustomed bondage of the French. And thereupon they, as armed cavalry, drew towards Lincoln, and in front of the gates they arranged their forces, and placed them to fight against the city. And then the North men and the French arrayed themselves to oppose them, and ascended the walls, and made a gallant defence. And after long fighting on every side, a detachment made a flank movement from the army that was led by the earl of Caer Loyw47 and Foulke Bruse; and through an unfrequented door they came in upon the castle, and so attacked the city, and made immense slaughter of the French and the North men, who, being terrified, took to flight, and, like simpletons, every one of them hid himself in the first place he could find. And then the men of king Henry proceeded to the gates, which they broke, and came in, pursuing and killing and taking and capturing the fugitives. In that battle the earl of Winchester and the earl of Hereford, and Robert Fitz Walter were taken; and earl Percy, the noblest almost of the French, and Simon de Vescy and Hugh de Roch, and Gilbert, earl of Clare, and Robert de Rupel and Rheinallt de Cressy, constable of Caerleon, and earl Gerald de Furneuale with many other chieftains, were killed; and a vast number of them were drowned in the river. And thus the kings men joyfully returned back, praising God, Who had wrought freedom for the people. And then, being in fear, Louis desisted from attacking the castle of Canterbury and hastened to London, from whence he despatched messengers to France for assistance. And then the kings men guarded the ports with a vast army. And the French came and navigated the seas with an immense fleet. And near the efflux of the river Thames there was a naval fight between the English and the French; and after many of the French had been a killed, the victory fell to the English, who joyfully returned from thence, having shut up Louis in London. In that interval, Rheinallt de Bruse and the king by chance became reconciled. And when young Rhys and Owain, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, saw that their uncle was going against the treaty which ho had entered into with the good men of England and Wales, they rose up against him, and wrested the whole of Buellt from him, except the castles. Then also Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, prince of Gwynedd became angry with Rheinallt de Bruse; and, breaking the treaty, he directed his army towards Brecheiniog; and he commenced by attacking Aberhodni, which he designed totally to destroy. And thereupon, the men of the town made peace with Llywelyn, through young Rhys, who became an accepted arbitrator between them, by delivering five hostages to Llywelyn, of the gentlemen of the town, that they would pay him a hundred marks, since they could not oppose him. And from thence he conducted his army to Gower, over the Black Mountain, where many sumpters were endangered; and then he encamped at Llangiwg. When Rheinallt and William de Bruse observed the devastation that Llywelyn was committing in his territory, he took six noble knights with him, and came to give himself up to the disposal of Llywelyn, who gave him the castle of Senghenydd, which Llywelyn had entrusted to the custody of Rhys the Hoarse. And after remaining there a few days, he led his army towards Dyved, against the Flemings, who were suing for peace from him. Yet the prince did not give up his purpose, but drew towards Haverford, and arranged his troops round the town, with the intention of fighting against it. And thereupon, young Rhys, at the head of a body of the men of the South, of whom he was leader, went through the river Cleddyv, and approached the town, having that retinue with him, in order to attack the town first. And then, Iorwerth, bishop of Menevia, accompanied by many of the religious and clergy, came to the prince, and proposed terms of peace to him. And these were the terms, namely, they were to give the prince twenty hostages from Rhos and Pembroke, of the noblest, that they would pay him a thousand marks by next Michaelmas; or otherwise they were to do homage to him by that time, and were to hold under him for ever. And after that every one returned to his country. And in that interval pacification was declared between Henry king of England, and Louis, son of the king of France. And the pacification was thus between them, namely, king Henry was to restore to the earls and barons of the kingdom the laws and institutions, on account of which the disturbance had taken place between them and king John; and each party was to liberate the prisoners taken on account of that war; and an immense sum of money was to be paid to Louis, the son of the king of France, he forswearing the kingdom of England for ever. Then, after obtaining the sum of money, and being absolved from the sentence of excommunication, he sailed for France. And then, there was an universal remission of the interdiction of the churches, through the whole kingdom of England and Wales and Ireland. In that interval, William Marshall fought against Caerleon, and took it; for the Welsh had not consented to the above pacification, supposing the agreement to have been forgotten, or disregarded. And then Rhys the Hoarse destroyed the castle of Senghenydd, and all the castles of Gower, and their strength. And he expelled the English population that were in that country entirely, so that they had no hope ever to return back, taking as much property as he chose, and placing Welshmen to dwell in the lands.

1218. The ensuing year, Christianity was rendered free to the men of the South; and Caermarthen and Abertrivi were put under the custody of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth. And then young Rhys went himself, and all the princes,—by the advice of Llywelyn to the court of the king, from South Wales, to do him homage. That year, many crusaders went to Jerusalem, among whom went the earl of Caerleon, and earl Marshall, and Bryan de Ville, with many other good men from England. That same year, an armament of Christians sailed to Damietta, whose leaders were the king of Jerusalem, and the patriarch of Jerusalem, and the master of the Temple, and the master of the Hospital, and the prince of Austria. They attacked the town, and obtained possession of it; and there was a castle in the middle of the river, constructed upon ships; that was scaled by the pilgrims with ladders, and they demolished it, after killing many of the Saracens, and capturing others.

1219. The ensuing year, Rhys the Hoarse married the daughter of the earl of Clare; and John de Bruse married Margaret, the daughter of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth. That year, the Almighty God delivered the city of Damietta in Egypt, which was upon the river Nile, to the army of the Christians, who were wearied with long fighting against the city; for Divine providence caused such mortality among the people in the city, that the living could not bury the dead; as, on the day the city was obtained, more than three thousand dead bodies were found about the streets, like dogs, unburied. And on that day, to the praise and glory of the Creator, an archbishop was consecrated in the city.

1220. One thousand two hundred was the year of Christ, when the body of Thomas the Martyr was raised by Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, and a cardinal from Rome, and was honourably deposited in a shrine of curious workmanship of gold and silver and precious stones, in the church of the Trinity, at Canterbury. That year, on the feast of S. Jean de Collaces48 next after that Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, cited to him most of the princes of all Wales, and collected a vast army to go against the Flemings of Rhos and Pembroke, because of their breaking the peace and the treaty, which the men of England had made between the English and the Welsh, by their committing frequent depredations upon the Welsh, and harrassing them. On the first day he attacked the castle of Arberth, which the Flemings had built, after having been formerly destroyed by the Welsh; and he obtained the castle by force, and threw it to the ground, after killing some of the garrison, burning others, and capturing others. And the following day he destroyed the castle of Gwys, and burned the town. The third day he came to Haverford, and burned the whole of the town to the castle gate. And thus he went round Rhos and Deugleddyv in five days, making vast slaughter of the people of the country. And after making a truce with the Flemings until the calends of May, he returned back joyful and happy.

1221. The ensuing year, a dispute was engendered between Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, and his son Gruffudd, on account of the cantrev of Meirionydd, which had been subjected by Gruffudd, because of the insults offered to him and his men by that cantrev. And Llywelyn became angry on that account, and collected an army, and proceeded to where Gruffudd was, threatening to revenge that proceeding upon him and upon his men. And Gruffudd boldly awaited the coming of his father, having arranged his troops and his host. And thereupon, the wise on both sides observed the impending danger, and exhorted Gruffudd to deliver himself and his property up to the will of his father. And they likewise exhorted Llywelyn to receive his son in peace and pity, and, from the bottom of his heart, to forego the whole of his anger; and thus was it accomplished. And thereupon, Llywelyn took the cantrev of Meirionydd, and comot of Ardudwy, from Gruffudd; and commenced building a castle therein for himself. In that interval, young Rhys became angry with the lord Llywelyn, and separated from him, and went to William Marshall, earl of Pembroke, because Llywelyn had given Caermarthen to Maelgwn, son of Rhys, and would not give Aberteivi to him, which fell to his share when South Wales was divided. Then Llywelyn, with his army, came to Aberystwyth, and obtained possession of the castle, with the territory attached to it, and placed it under his own dominion. And then young Rhys repaired to the court of the king, and complained to the king of the insult that Llywelyn had offered him. And the king a assembled Llywelyn and the earls and barons of the marches to Shrewsbury. And in that council young Rhys and Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, were reconciled; and Llywelyn relinquished Aberteivi in his favour, as he had given Caermarthen to Maelgwn, son of Rhys, That year, the army of the Christians of Damietta in Egypt proceeded towards Babylon, with the view of attack ing it; but the vengeance of God. suffered it not; for the river Nile flooded over their way, the octave of the feast of St. Mary49, last in the autumn and they were hemmed in between two rivers, so that an immense number were drowned; and then the others were captured. And then they were compelled to restore Damietta back to the Saracens, to save their lives, and be freed from bondage, and to enter into a truce with them for eight years. And from thence the Saracens conveyed them to Acre, where nothing was known of the cross of Christ; but the mercy of God Himself rewarded them. That year, about the feast of St. Nicholas50 John de Bruse repaired the castle of Abertawy and Seughenydd, by the permission and advice of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth.

1222. The ensuing year, died young Rhys, son of Gruffudd, son of the lord Rhys, being a young man famous for his praise and bravery and sense and wisdom—the light of the old—the liberality and fame and gem of the young—the honour and glory and beauty and invincible strength of the knights—the pillar and tower of his country—the father and shepherd and fosterfather of the scholars,—constancy, gentility, and peace;—being a mediator for the people, a ship and harbour and a defender to the weak—the treader and, admiration and terror of his enemies—the sole hope of all South Wales—and that after a long and lingering disorder, in the month of August; and was buried at Strata Florida, after taking penance and communion and confession and the habit of religion. And after that, Owain, son of Gruffudd, his only brother, obtained part of his territory, and another part Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, gave to Maelgwn, son of Rhys. That year, William Marshall, earl of Pembroke, sailed to Ireland.

1223. The ensuing year, William Marshall returned from Ireland with a multitude of cavalry and infantry, and came up to land with a vast fleet about Palm Sunday. And on Easter Monday he approached Aberteivi; and on that day the castle was delivered to him; and on the Wednesday following he drew to Caermarthen, and obtained that castle also. And when Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, heard that,—the person who had the custody of the castles, on the part of the king,—he sent Gruffudd his son with a very numerous army to oppose the earl. And when Gruffudd understood that it was the intention of the earl to come to Cydweli, he proceeded towards it, accompanied by the nobility of Wales. And Rhys the Hoarse a reminded them that they were to guard against the treachery of the burgesses, and endeavoured to excite the Welsh to seek the safety of the woods; but they did not give way, for they proceeded to the town, and burned the town and the church to the ground. When the earl heard of this, he proceeded through the Tywi by the bridge of Caermarthen, and boldly awaited Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn. And after continued fighting for the greater part of the day, each of the two armies separated and returned to their tents, after killing many on both sides, and wounding others. And then, for lack of provision, Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn, returned back to his country. Then the earl repaired the castle of Caermarthen; and began to build the castle of Cilgerran. It was not long after the work was commenced, before there came letters to him from the king and the archbishop of Canterbury, requiring him to come in his proper person to answer before them, and to make satisfaction for what he had done, and to receive satisfaction from the prince for every wrong he had done him. And the earl obeyed the commands, and sailed with a small retinue in a ship for England, leaving his army at Cilgerran, to carry on the work commenced, and to strengthen the place where they might observe danger. And the prince and the earl appeared together at Ludlow before the council of the king and the archbishop. And since they could not be reconciled, the earl designed through the aid of earl Ferers and Henry Pictot, lord of Ewias, to proceed through the territory of the prince to his own country; but he was not able, because Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, had sent his son Gruffudd, and a large army with him, and Rhys the Hoarse, and his men, to Carnwyllon, to intercept the earl and his men, and there was he slain. And Llywelyn himself, with all his power, proceeded to Mabudrud; and there he waited for tidings from his men, and as to the advance of the earl.

1224. The ensuing year, a convent went from the White House to dwell on the hill of lamentation at Whitland in Ireland.

1225. The other forthcoming year, Cedivor, abbot of Strata. Florida, died.

1226. The forthcoming year, Louis, king of France, died.

1227. The ensuing year, Rhys the Hoarse was captured at Llanarthneu by his son, Rhys the Little; and for the castle of Llanymddyvri was liberated. That year, Maredudd, son of the lord Rhys, archdeacon of Ceredigion, died in the church of St. Mary, at Llanbedr Tal Pont Stephan, and his body was conveyed to Menevia, where he was honourably buried by Iorwerth, bishop of Menevia, in the church of St. David near the grave of the lord Rhys, his father.

1223. The ensuing year, king Henry, having with him the strength of England, came to Wales, intending to subjugate Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, and all the Welsh princes; and encamped in the place called Ceri; and on the other side of the wood, the Welsh, with Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, their prince, assembled to oppose the king. And there they attacked their enemies, and fought with them furiously, making vast slaughter of them. And there young William Bruse was taken wounded, and imprisoned; and for his liberation the castle of Buellt, with the district, and a vast sum of money, was given to Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth. And then the king returned to England with shame, only he obtained the homage of the princes, who were there, and formed a pacification between him and Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth.

1229. The ensuing year, Iorwerth, bishop of Menevia, died.

1230. One thousand two hundred and thirty was the year of Christ, when king Henry, having with him a vast armed host, sailed for France, with the intention of obtaining his right as to Normandy and Anjou and Poictou. And soon after that, on account of a storm and mortality, being disappointed of his purpose, he returned to England. That year, William Canton of Cemaes died. Then young Llywelyn, son of Maelgwn, died, on his estate in Gwynedd, and was honourably buried at Aberconway. That year, William Bruse was hanged by Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, having been caught in the chamber of the prince, with the princess Jannet daughter of king John, and wife of the prince.

1231. The ensuing year, Maelgwn, son of Rhys, died at Llanerch Aeron, and was buried in the chapter house at Strata Florida. That year, king Henry built Pains Castle in Elvael. Then, on account of the dispute which had taken place between Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth and the king, Llywelyn burned the town and castle of Baldwin, and Maes Hyveidd, and Gelli, and Aberhodni, and razed the castles to the ground. From thence he drew into Gwent, and reduced Caerleon to ashes, whilst some gentlemen were lost there. And from thence he started for the castle of Nedd, and the castle of Cydweli, and cast them to the ground That year, young Maelgwn, son of Maelgwn, son of Rhys, burned Aberteivi to the gate of the castle, and slew all the burgesses, and returned victoriously, after obtaining vast spoil and a profusion of booty. And then he returned, and broke down the bridge of Aberteivi. And from thence he came to Owain, son of Gruffudd, son of the lord Rhys, his cousin and the men of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, to fight against the castle, and before the end of a few days, they broke the castle with engines; and the garrison was compelled to quit the walls, and to deliver up the castle.

1232. The ensuing year, John de Bruse died of a cruel death, having been bruised by his horse. Then the earl of Caerleon died. And Abraham, bishop of Llanelwy, died.

1233. The ensuing year, Rickert, earl of Pembroke, brother to king Henry, repaired the castle of Maes Hyveidd, which had been destroyed by Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, two years previously. That year, Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, proceeded to Brecheiniog, and destroyed all the castles and towns of the country, ravaging and despoiling every place. And he fought against the castle of Aberhodni for a month, with missiles and engines, and in the end desisted, after reducing all the town to ashes. And then, on his return, he burned the town of Colunwy, and subjugated the Vale of Teveidiog. And after that, having burned Trallwng he proceeded to the Red Castle, and razed it to the ground, and burned the town of Oswestry. That year, there was a dispute between king Henry and Rickert Marshall, earl of Pembroke. And then the earl entered into treaty with Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, and the Welsh princes; and immediately he, and Owain, son of Gruffudd, son of the lord Rhys assembled a vast army, and proceeded against Aber Mynyw, and burned it, and slaughtered the kings men, who were there in garrison. Afterwards, they soon reduced these towns and castles, to wit, Cardiff and Abergavenny, Pen Gelli, Blaen Llyvni, and Bwlch y Dinas, and razed them all to the ground, except Cardiff. That year, Maelgwn the Little, son of Maelgwn, son of Rhys, and Owain, son of Gruffudd, son of the lord Rhys and Rhys the Hoarse with their sons, and the army of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, and the army of the earl of Pembroke, assembled against Caermarthen. They fought against it for three months, and made a bridge over the Tywi. And then the sailors came armed, with the flood tide, to break down the bridge. When the Welsh perceived that their expedition prospered not, they returned to their respective countries. That year, Rhys the Hoarse died at Llandeilo the Great, and was buried in Menevia, near the grave of his father. The same year, Maelgwn the Little, son of Maelgwn, son of Rhys completed the building of the castle of Trev Ilan, which had previously been commenced by his father Maelgwn.

1234. The ensuing year, Rickert, earl of Pembroke, was stabbed in a battle in Ireland, after having been treacherously deserted by his knights; and before the end of a fortnight he died. That year, Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, was liberated, after having been six years in prison. The same year, Cadwallon, son of Maelgwn, of Maelienydd, died at Cwm Hir.

1235. The ensuing year, Owain, son of Gruffudd, son of the lord Rhys a gentleman by race, and courteous in manners, wise, generous, and praiseworthy, died at Strata Florida, on the Wednesday after the octave of the Epiphany51, and was buried with Rhys, son of the lord Rhys his brother, in the chapter house of the monks. That year, king Henry married the daughter of the earl of Provence, and held his nuptial solemnities in London, at Christmas, after having assembled the bishops, and most of the earls and barons of England together.

1236. The ensuing year, Madog, son of Grufludd Maelor—the man who surpassed all in the celebrity of his manners, his generosity, and religion, for he was the special founder of monasteries, and was the supporter of the needy and poor and indigent died, and was honourably buried in the monastery of Llanegwestl, which he had previously founded. That year, Owain, son of Maredudd, son of Robert of Cydewain, died. And then the bishop of London, and the bishop of Worcester, and the bishop of Lincoln, died. And one night before Christmas Eve there arose a remarkable wind to break down an immense number of houses and churches, and to injure the trees, and kill many men and animals. That year, pope Gregory the ninth released the bishop of Bangor from his diocese, and he was honourably received into the white religious society in the monastery of Dor; and there he died and was buried. And then Gilbert, earl of Pembroke, obtained, through treachery, the castle of Morgan, son of Howel in Mechain; and when he had fortified it, he restored it back, for fear of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth.

1237. The ensuing year, Dame Joan, daughter of king John, and the wife of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, died in the month of February, at the court of Aber, and was buried in a a new cemetery on the side of the strand, which Howel, bishop of Llanelwy, had consecrated. And in honour of her, Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, built there a monastery for barefooted monks, which is called Llanvaes in Mona. And then Ieuan, earl of Caerleon, and Cynvrig, son of the lord Rhys, died. That year, there came again a cardinal from Rome to England, sent, as his legate, by pope Gregory the ninth.

1238. The ensuing year, on the morrow after the feast of St. Luke the Evangelist [Oct. 19], all the princes of Wales sware fidelity to David, son of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, at Strata Florida. And then he took, from his brother Gruffudd, Arwystli and Ceri and Cyveiliog and Mawddwy and Mochnant and Caereinion; leaving to him nothing but the cantrev of Lleyn itself. And then Maredudd, son of Madog, son of Gruffudd Maelor, slew his brother Gruffudd; and immediately Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, divested him of his territory on that account.

1239. The ensuing year, Maredudd the Blind son of the lord Rhys, died, and was buried at Whitland. Then also the bishop of Winchester died; and a son was born to king Henry, called Edward. And David, son of Llywelyn, seized his brother Gruffudd, breaking the compact with him, and imprisoned him and his son at Cricciaeth.

1240. One thousand two hundred and forty was the year of Christ, when Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, prince of Wales, died—the man whose good works it would be difficult to enumerate—and was buried at Aberconway, after taking the habit of religion. And after him David, his son, by Joan, the daughter of king John, his mother, reigned. The month of May following, David, son of Llywelyn, having with him the barons of Wales, went to Gloucester, to do homage to the king his uncle, and to receive from him his territory lawfully. And then the English sent Walter Marshall, and an army with him, to fortify Aberteivi.

1241. The ensuing year, Otto, the cardinal, went from England, and he and many archbishops and bishops and abbots, and other churchmen were seized by the emperor Frederick, a man who, being excommunicated, was making war against pope Gregory. And after the cardinal had left England, the king assembled an army, and came to subdue the princes of Wales; and he fortified the castle of Carreg, near Diserth in Tegeingl, and took hostages from David, son of Llywelyn, his nephew, on account of Gwynedd, that David should pay to Gruffudd, son of Gwenwynwyn, his whole claim to Powys; and to the sons of Maredudd, son of Cynan, their whole claim in Meirionydd. And he cited David to London before the council, and he was to bring with him his brother Gruffudd, and all the prisoners that were with him in the prison of the king, to London. And then pope Gregory the ninth died.

1242. The ensuing year, a little after Easter, king Henry sailed for Poictou, to obtain from the king of France his right as to his lands, which the king of France had taken from him previously. But he did not obtain it that year, but, after letting his earls return, he and the queen remained at Bourdeaux. That same year, these castles in Wales were strengthened; by Maelgwn the Little, Garthgrugyn, Menevia and Buellt by John, Maelienydd by Roger Mortimer. And then, Gruffudd, son of Maredudd, son of the lord Rhys, archdeacon of Ceredigion, died.

1243. The ensuing year, king Henry returned from Bourdeaux; and the Welsh with many others, were unlawfully oppressed.

1244. The ensuing year, Rhys Mechyll, son of Rhys the Hoarse, son of the lord Rhys died. That year, Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn, attempted to escape from the kings prison in London, by throwing a rope through the window of the tower, and descending along the rope, but the rope breaking, he fell, and broke his neck. And then David, son of Llywelyn, became enraged, and summoned all his good men to him, and attacked his foes, and drove them from all their borders, except such as were in castles. And he sent messengers with letters, summoning to him all the princes of Wales; and every body joined him, except Gruffudd, son of Madog, and Gruffudd, son of Gwenwynwyn, and Morgan, son of Howel; and to those he caused many losses, and compelled them against their will to submit to him. That year died Maredudd, son of Robert, the chief counsellor of Wales, after taking the religious habit at Strata Florida

1245. The ensuing year, the heirs of William Marshall obtained their patrimony in peace. And king Henry assembled the power of England and Ireland, with the intention of subjecting all Wales to him, and came to Dyganwy. And after fortifying the castle, and leaving knights in it, he returned to England, having left an immense number of his army dead and unburied, some having been slain and others drowned.

1246. The ensuing year was a rainy year. David, son of Llywelyn, died at Aber, in the month of March, and was buried with his father at Aberconway. And since he had no issue of his body, his nephews Owain the Red, and Llywelyn, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn, his brother, reigned after him. Those, by the advice of good men, divided their dominion between them into two halves. That year, king Henry sent Nicholas de Myles, justice of Caermarthen and Maredudd, son of Rhys the Hoarse and Maredudd, son of Owain, to dispossess Maelgwn the Little. And thereupon, Maelgwn, with his family, was compelled to flee into Gwynedd, and to Owain and Llywelyn, the sons of Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn, leaving his territory to strangers; because the royal power summoned all that joined with the king against Owain and Llywelyn, and Maelgwn the Little and Howel, son of Maredudd of Glamorgan, who were then along with them in Gwynedd, being entirely dispossessed by the earl of Clare. And when they became acquainted with that, they kept themselves in the mountains and the wilds. That same year Ralph Mortimer died, and in his stead arose Roger his son.

1247. The ensuing year, Howel, bishop of Llanelwy, died at Oxford; and was there buried. And then Anselm the Fat bishop of Menevia, died. The same year, the twentieth day of the month of February, the twelfth day of the prime of the moon, and this letter F. denoting Sunday, about the time of vespers there was a dreadful earthquake generally throughout the whole kingdom.

1248. The ensuing year, the noble king of France, and his three brothers, having with them immense armies of Christians, took their course towards Jerusalem; and about the end of the year they sailed over the great sea. That year, the month of July, Gruffudd, abbot of Strata Florida, made peace with king Henry, in respect of a debt which the monastery owed for a long time previously, he forgiving to the abbot and convent half the debt, namely fifty marks; and three hundred marks the other paid, and was to pay as much more, under settled limitations, as may be found in the Register of the monastery. That year Owain, son of Robert, obtained Cydewain his right; and Rhys the Little, son of Rhys Mechyll, obtained the castle of Carreg Cennen back again, which his mother had deceitfully given into the possession of the French, from hatred towards her son. That year, king Henry permitted the abbot of Strata Florida, and the abbot of Aberconway, to have the body of Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn; and they brought it with them from London to Aberconway, in which place he lies.

1249. The ensuing year, king Louis, with his three brothers, and the queen, went to the city of Damietta; and God easily granted it to him, the Saracens having left it. The ensuing summer, the fates became adverse, and the king was taken by the Saracens, after Robert his brother had been killed, with about thirty thousand of the Christians; and for his liberation, and transport of himself and men to Acre, he was constrained to restore Damietta to the Saracens, and to pay an immense sum of money besides, and shortly after that, God granted to him victory to revenge his insult on the enemies of Christ, for he sent his two brothers to France, to collect for him strength in money and armed men, whilst he and the queen remained at Acre. And from thence he gained the city of Damietta again, killing an immense number of the Saracens.

1250. One thousand two hundred and fifty was the year of Christ, when the king of Prydyn died, leaving one son as his heir.

1251. The ensuing year, Gwladus the Dark, the daughter of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth the Brokennosed, and wife of Sir Randulph Mortimer died. And in the end of that year, Morgan, son of the lord Rhys, died, after taking the religious habit at Strata Florida.

1252. The ensuing year, the heat of the sun was so great, that all the earth became so dry therefrom, that no fruit grew on the trees or the fields, and neither fish of the sea nor of the rivers were obtained. And at the end of the harvest of that year, so great were the rains, that the water floods covered the face of the earth, since the excess of the dryness of the earth could not absorb the waters; and the rivers flooded so that the bridges and the mills and the houses adjoining the rivers were broken, and the woods and orchards were stripped, besides many other losses during the summer. That same year, William, son of Gwrwared, the person who was seneschal to the king over the land of young Maelgwn, by the command of the king, took spoil from the men of Elvael, because they sought the custom of the pasturage of Maelienydd as of privilege.

The ensuing year, king Henry sailed for Bourdeaux, having with him an immense army; and he commended the kingdom to the care of Edward his son, and Rickert, earl of Cornwall, his brother, and the queen. The same year, in Lent, Thomas, bishop of Menevia, returned from the court of Rome.

1253. The ensuing year, Louis, king of France, returned from his pilgrimage, after having been for six years fighting with the Saracens. That ensuing year, king Henry returned from Gascony, having left his son Edward there, to guard it, with an immense army along with him. And then Gwenllian, daughter of young Maelgwn, died at Llanvihangel Gelynrod, and was buried in the chapter house of the monks at Strata Florida.

1254. The ensuing year, Maredudd, son of Llywelyn, of Meirionydd, died, leaving one son as his heir, by Gwenllian, the daughter of Maelgwn. And soon after the feast of St. John, Rhys, only son of young Maelgwn, died, after taking the habit of religion at Strata Florida, and there he was buried, near his sister, in the chapter house of the monks. In those days, by the instigation of a the devil a great dissension was engendered between the sons of Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn, namely, Owain the Red and David, on the one side, and Llywelyn on the other side. And thereupon, Llywelyn and his men awaited, without fear, confiding in God, at Bryn Derwin, the cruel coming of his brothers, accompanied by a vast army; and before the end of one hour, Owain the Red was taken, and David fled, after many of the army were killed, and others captured, and the other part had taken to flight. And then Owain the Red was imprisoned; and Llywelyn took possession of the territory of Owain and David, without any opposition. That year, Margaret, daughter of Maelgwn, and wife of Owain, son of Robert, son of Maredudd of Cydewain, died. And the great bell at Strata Florida was bought for a three score and thirty-seven marks and two kine; and it was immediately put up, and consecrated by the bishop of Bangor. And then, about the end of the summer, died Thomas Wallis, bishop of Menevia.

1255. The ensuing year, Edward, son of king Henry, earl of Caerleon, came, in August next after that to take a survey of his castles and lands in Gwynedd. And then, as it were about August, and after he had returned to England the nobles of Wales came to Llywelyn, son of Gruffudd, having been robbed of their liberty, and made captives, and complainingly declared to him that they would rather be killed in war for their liberty, than suffer themselves to be trodden down by strangers in bondage. And Llywelyn was moved at their tears; and by their incitement and advice, he, with Maredudd, son of Rhys the Hoarse, invaded the midland country, and subdued it all before the end of the week. And then he took Meirionydd to himself; and that part of Ceredigion, which belonged to Edward, he gave to Maredudd, son of Owain, son of Gruffudd, son of the lord with Buellt in addition; and he restored to Maredudd, son of Rhys the Hoarse, his territory, by expelling his nephew Rhys from his territory, aand gave the territory to Maredudd, retaining nothing to himself of all the conquered lands, other than fame and reward. And afterwards, he wrested Gwerthrynion from Roger Mortimer, and held it in his own hand. And then the doctor Rhys, of Caer Rhiw, was consecrated by the pope bishop of Menevia.

1256. The ensuing year, Llywelyn, son of Gruffudd, and Maredudd, son of Rhys the Hoarse and Maredudd, son of Owain, accompanied by many other nobles, entered the territory of Gruffudd, son of Gwenwynwyn, and subdued the whole, except the castle of Trallwng, and part of the Vale of Severn, with a little of Caereinion; and he destroyed the castle of Bydydon. In that interval, Rhys the Little, son of Rhys Mechyll, who was under banishment in England, collected vast aid and strength of the barons and knights from England, and came to Caermarthen. And from thence, in Whitsun week, he took his course to Dinevwr; and when he had entered the castle, the garrison seized him; and then they proceeded with a body of men, and took the barons and the noble knights, and slew upwards of two thousand of the army, that was, when the men were slain in mutual engagement. And then the princes marched to Dyved; and destroyed the castle of Aber Torran, and Llanstephan, and Arberth, and Maenclochog, and burned the town and towns.

1257. The ensuing year, Llywelyn, son of Gruffudd, subdued Cemaes. And after that, Llywelyn, son of Gruffudd, came to South Wales about the feast of St. John the Baptist And Maredudd, son of Rhys was reconciled to Rhys Mechyll the Little, his nephew. And jointly from thence they attacked Trevdraeth, and demolished the castle. And then they took Maredudd, son of Owain, along with them, and invaded Rhos, and burned all the country, except Haverford. And from thence they marched to Glamorgan; and after reducing and taking the castle of Llan Geneu, they returned home, having killed many, and captured others. And then young Maelgwn died, and was buried in the chapter house of the monks at Strata Florida. That year, about the feast of St. Mary in August52, king Henry came, with a large army, to Dyganwy; and there he tarried until the feast of St. Mary in September53; and then he returned to England. At that time the church of Llanbadarn the Great was burned; and Llywelyn, son of Gruffudd, was reconciled to Gruffudd, son of Madog, son of Gruffudd Maelor and Gruffudd, son of Gwenwynwyn, was driven from his territory into banishment.

1258. The ensuing year, a body of the nobles of Wales made an oath of fidelity to Llywelyn, son of Gruffudd, under pain of excommunication; Maredudd, son of Rhys, however, did not keep that oath, but disloyally went against it. That year, there was a disturbance in England among the strangers, about the feast of St. John the Baptist. The same year, David, son of Gruffudd, and Maredudd, son of Owain, and Rhys the Little, aand Rhys Mechyll, went as far as Emlyn to speak with Maredudd, son of Rhys the Hoarse and with Patrick de Sayes the seneschal of the king at Caermarthen. When Maredudd and Patrick saw the other men, they broke the truce, and seized them; and then Patrick was slain, and many knights and infantry along with him. In the close of that year, king Henry made a voyage so as to have a conference with the king of France.

1260. One thousand two hundred and sixty was the year of Christ, when Llywelyn, son of Gruffudd, entered Buellt, and took the whole of it from Roger Mortimer, except the castle. And from thence, proceeding across South Wales, without doing harm to any one, he returned to Gwynedd. And after that immediately the men of Llywelyn, by a night onset, without a single stroke of fighting, got the castle of Buellt; and after taking the garrison prisoners, and securing the horses and the arms and the furniture and all the spoil, they destroyed the castle. And then Owain, son of Maredudd of Elvael, made peace with the lord Llywelyn.

1261. The ensuing year, died Gwladus, the daughter of Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn, the wife of the lord Rhys son of Rhys Mechyll. And then, about the calends of winter, Owain; son of Maredudd, lord of Cydewain, died.

1262. The ensuing year, Rickert, earl of Clare, died. The same year, about the feast of St. Andrew, some men, by the counsel of the people of Maelienydd, came to the new castle that Roger Mortimer had in Maelienydd. And after having entered, through treachery, they killed the porters, and seized Howel, son of Meurug, who was constable there, with his wife and his sons and his daughters. And they informed the seneschal and constable of the lord Llywelyn thereof; and those hastened there to burn the castle. And when the aforesaid Roger heard of that, he came with vast strength to support him to the place of the said castle, and pitched his tents within the walls for a few days. And when Llywelyn became acquainted with that, he collected an army, and came into Maelienydd, and received the homage of the men of Maelienydd. And after gaining two other castles, he gave permission to Roger Mortimer to return back; and he, by the request of the good men of Brecheiniog, went to Brecheiniog, and, after taking the homage of the country, he returned to Gwynedd.

1263. The ensuing year, a little before Easter John Strange the younger, who was then bailiff of Castle Baldwin, made a night attack with a vast force upon Ceri and Cydewain; and after collecting immense spoil, he returned back, down by way of Cydewain to the Tanad. And when the Welsh got information of this, they pursued them, and slew on that day, of the English, upwards of twelve hundred, including those on the fields and in the barn of Aber Miwl. And immediately after that, John Strange burned the barn on account of that slaughter; and a little afterwards he killed the Welsh near Colunwy. At that time, Edward was traversing the region of Gwynedd, and burning some of the towns. And after that he returned to England. And then, by the instigation of the devil, David forsook the society of his brother Llywelyn, and went to England, with some of his confederates. At that time, the barons of England, and some earls, rose with the Welsh, against Edward and the strangers, purposing to expel them from amongst them, and out of all England, to subdue the strong cities, and to destroy the castles that were in Gwynedd, in his territory; to wit, Dyganwy and Caer Vaelan And Gruffudd, son of Gwenwynwyn, destroyed the castle of Gwyddgrug.

1264. The ensuing year, there was a memorable disturbance between king Henry and Edward his son, with their supporters on the one side, and the earls and barons on the other side. And upon that occasion, the king of England and his two sons and the king of Germany, and his two sons, came to the plain of Lewes, having agreed together upon seizing the earls and barons, who were seeking to obtain the good laws and customs of England. Yet, nevertheless, fate turned adverse; for the earls and barons there seized the kings and the two sons of king Henry, namely, Edward and Edmund, with twenty-five of the principal barons who were with them, and many of the noblest knights among them, after more than ten thousand men had been killed on the side of the kings, as some of the men who were in the battle say. And after that, by advice, the earls liberated the king of England, and imprisoned the others. That year, the Welsh enjoyed peace from the English; Llywelyn, son of Gruffudd, being prince of all Wales. And then, Llywelyn, son of Rhys, son of Maelgwn, son of the lord Rhys, son of Gruffudd, son of Rhys, son of Tewdwr died on the octave of Epiphany54.

1265. The ensuing year, the Thursday before the feast of the Trinity, Edward, son of king Henry, escaped out of the prison of Simon Montford, in the castle of Hereford, through the scheme of Roger Mortimer. And after that, Edward collected a vast army of earls and barons and armed knights, against Simon Montford and his confederates; and on the Tuesday next after August, they came together to the field of Esham. And when the battle between them had abated, and many been killed on both sides, Simon Montford and his son fell, with a multitude of others. That year, the month of March, Maredudd, son of Owain, son of Gruffudd, son of the lord Rhys, the defender of all South Wales, and counsellor of all Wales died at Llanbadar the Great, and was buried in the chapter house of the monks at Strata Florida. Then the fourth Clement was elected pope.

1266. The ensuing year, the two sons of Simon Montford escaped from the prison of the king. And after fortifying the castle of Celli Wrda, and supplying it with men and arms and provisions, he sailed for France, to seek aid from his relations and friends. And when king Henry had information of that, he collected a vast army from all England to attack the castle, after the feast of St. John the Baptist55; and the garrison manfully defended the castle until the eve of the feast of St. Thomas the Apostle56. And then, for want of provision, they delivered up the castle on their having their lives and limbs safe, and retaining their arms.

1267. The ensuing year, Llywelyn, son of Gruffudd, confederated with earl Clare. And then the earl marched with an immense army to London; and through the treachery of the burgesses he possessed himself of the town. And when king Henry and his son Edward was informed of this, they collected an immense army, and marched to London, and attacked it; and upon conditions they compelled the earl and the burgesses to submit to them. After that, on the feast of pope Calixtus, peace was confirmed between king Henry and Llywelyn, son of Gruffudd, by Octobonus, the popes legate, as arbitrator between them at Castle Baldwin; and on account of that compact, Llywelyn, son of Gruffudd, promised the king ten and twenty thousand sterling marks. And the king granted that he should have the homage of all the barons of Wales, and that the barons should hold under him their property for ever; and they were thenceforth to be called princes of Wales. And in testimony thereof, the king confirmed his charter to Llywelyn, with the consent of his heirs, bound by his seal, and the seal of the said legate, and that was established by the authority of the pope. In that year Charles, king of Sicily, killed Conradin, the grandson of the emperor Frederick, and the son of Frederick, in a battle on the plain of Poland. That year, the soldan of Babylon reduced the city of Antioch, after slaying the men and women, and ravaging the country of Armenia, and carrying the inhabitants into bondage.

1268. In the ensuing year died Goronwy, son of Ednyved, steward of the princes household, on the eve of St. Luke the Evangelist, a man illustrious in arms, and generous in gifts, wise in council, and upright in deed, and humorous in words and Joab, the abbot of Strata Florida.

1269. The ensuing year, the seventh day of the month of December, Gruffudd, son of Madog, lord of Maelor, and Madog the Little, his brother died, and were buried at Llanegwestl.

1270. One thousand two hundred and seventy was the year of Christ, when Maredudd, son of Gruffudd, lord of Hirvryn, died, on the morrow of the feast of St. Lucy, Virgin57, in the castle of Llanymddyvri, and was buried in the chapter house of the monks at Strata Florida. That year, in the month of October Llywelyn, son of Gruffudd, possessed himself of the castle of Caerphili. The same year died Louis, king of France, and his son, and the popes legate with him, on the road going to Jerusalem; and that Louis is an honourable saint in heaven.

1271. In the ensuing year, the sixth day after August, died Maredudd, son of Rhys the Hoarse, in the castle at Dyryslwyn, and was buried at Whitland, in the great church, on the steps in front of the high altar. At the end of three weeks afterwards, on the octave of the feast of St. Laurence young Rhys, son of Rhys Mechyll, son of Rhys the Hoarse died in the castle of Dinevwr, and was buried at Tal y Llychau.

1272. In the ensuing year, king Henry died, on the feast of St. Cicily, Virgin, after reigning fifty-six years, one month, and one week, and was buried in the new monastery in London. And after him his eldest son reigned; his acts are written in the histories of the kings. The same year, on the feast of St. Denis, the tenth Gregory was elected pope.

1273. The ensuing year, Owain and Gruffudd, sons of Maredudd, son of Owain, son of Gruffudd, son of the lord Rhys restored the middle comot to their brother Cynan, about Candlemas day58.

1274. The ensuing year, about Low Easter59, Llywelyn, son of Gruffudd, visited the castle of Dolvorwyn. And he summoned to him Gruffudd, son of Gwenwynwyn, whom he upbraided for the deceit and disloyalty he experienced from him; and he took from him Arwystli, aand thirteen townships of Cyveiliog, which are on the further side of the Dyvi, in Rhiw Helyg and took Owain, his eldest son, and earned him along with him to Gwynedd. That year, pope Gregory the tenth held a general council in Lyons, on the calends of May. That year, the Sunday after the feast of St. Mary in August, Edward, son of the third Henry, was consecrated king of England. In that year, about the feast of St. Andrew, Llywelyn sent messengers to Gruffudd, son of Gwenwynwyn, to the castle of Trallwng; who on his part received them joyfully, brought them into the castle, and entertained them lavishly. And on that night he went to Shrewsbury, and commanded the garrison to detain the messengers in prison. And when the prince heard that, he assembled all Wales to fight against the castle. And when he had arrived there with his army, the garrison delivered up the castle to him; and when he had liberated the garrison and the messengers, he burned the castle, and destroyed it to the ground. After that he subdued all the territory of Gruffudd, son of Gwenwynwyn, without opposition, and placed his own officers in all the territory. In the same year, there was an exchange of comots between Cynan, son of Maredudd, son of Owain and byoung Rhys his brother; and thus Penardd came to Cynan, and the middle comot to Rhys the Little.

1255. In the ensuing year, a little before Ascension Thursday, king Edward appointed a council in London; and then he established new institutions over the whole kingdom. In that year, on the fifteenth day of August, Owain, son of Maredudd, son of Owain, son of Gruffudd, son of the lord Rhys died, and was buried at Strata Florida, in the chapter house of the monks near his father. That year, about the feast of St. Mary in September, king Edward came from London to Caerleon, and summoned to him Llywelyn, son of Gruffudd, prince of Wales, to do homage to him. And the prince summoned unto him all the barons of Wales; and by general consent, he did not go to the king, because the king harboured his fugitives, namely, David, son of Gruffudd, and Gruffudd, son of Gwenwynwyn. And on that account the king returned to England in anger, and Llywelyn returned to Wales. In that year, the octave of the feast of St. Mary in September60, there was an earthquake in Wales, about the hour of evening tide. That year, after the feast of St. Michael, Emri, son of Simon Montford, with Eleanor his sister, sailed for Gwynedd. And upon that journey they were seized by the gate keepers of Haverford, and conveyed to the prison of king Edward. And this Eleanor had been betrothed to Llywelyn for his wife by representative words. And she, through the intercession and advice of pope Innocent and the gentry of England, was set at liberty. And then, on the feast of St. Edward61 the marriage of Llywelyn and Eleanor was solemnized at Winchester, Edward, king of England himself bearing the cost of the banquet and nuptial festivities liberally. And of that Eleanor there was a daughter to Llywelyn, called Gwenllian; and Eleanor died in childbirth, and was buried in the chapter house of the barefooted friars at Llanvaes in Mona. The said Gwenllian, after the death of her father, was taken as a prisoner to England, and before she was of age, she was made a nun against her consent. Emri was liberated from the kings prison, and he took a journey to the court of Rome.

1276. The ensuing year, the lord Llywelyn sent frequent messengers to the court of the king about forming a peace between them, but he did not succeed. And at length, about the feast of Candlemas the king appointed a council at Worcester; and there he designed three armies against Wales; one for Caerleon, and himself to lead it; another for Castle Baldwin, led by the earl of Lincoln and Roger Mortimer. Gruffudd, son of Gwenwynwyn, had fixed upon them to reconquer his territory, which he had previously lost, by refusing Cydewain and Ceri and Gwerthrynion and Buellt to the king. And then the earl of Hereford got possession of Brecheiniog. The third army he sent to Caermarthen and Ceredigion, led by Pain, son of Patrick de Says.

1277. The ensuing year, the earl of Lincoln and Roger Mortimer besieged the castle of Dolvorwyn, and at the end of a fortnight they obtained it, through want of water. Then Rhys, son of Maredudd, son of Owain, son of Gruffudd, son of the lord Rhys and Rhys Wyndod, son of young Rhys, son of Rhys Mechell, son of Rhys the Hoarse, son of the lord Rhys nephew, sisters son to the prince, became reconciled to Pain, son of Patrick. Llywelyn, his brother, and Howel, and Rhys the Hoarse quitted their territory, and went to Gwynedd, to Llywelyn; Rhys, son of Maelgwn, son of the lord Rhys went to Roger Mortimer, and made submission to the king, by the hand of Roger. And last of all, from South Wales, Gruffudd, and Cynan, the sons of Maredudd, son of Owain, son of Gruffudd, son of the lord Rhys and Llywelyn, son of Owain, his nephew, became reconciled to the king. And thus all South Wales became subjected to the king. Then Pain, son of Patrick, subjugated to the king three comots of Upper Aeron—a Anhunog, and Mevenydd, and the middle comot. And Rhys, son of Maredudd, and Rhys Wyndod, and the two sons of Maredudd, son of Owain, son of Gruffudd, son of the lord Rhys from Ceredigion went to the court of the king, to offer their homage and oath of allegiance to him. But the king delayed accepting their homage until the next council; sending Rhys, son of Maredudd, and Gruffudd, son of Maredudd, home, and retaining with him Cynan, son of Maredudd, son of Owain and Rhys Wyndod. And then Pain placed Llywelyn, son of Owain, as a youth in guardianship, because of a deficiency of age. After that, on the octave of the feast of St. John62, Rhys, son of Maelgwn, and the four above named barons, did homage to the king in the council at Worcester. The same year, the feast of St. James the Apostle, Edmund, the kings brother, came with an army to Llanbadarn; and began to build a castle at Aberystwyth. And then the king, having ahis force with him, came to the Midland District, and fortified a court at Flint, surrounded with vast dykes. From thence he proceeded to Rhuddlan, and this he also fortified, by surrounding it with dykes; and there he tarried some time. That year, the Saturday after August, Rhys, son of Maelgwn, son of the lord Rhys retired to Gwynedd, to Llywelyn, for fear of being taken by the English who were at Llanbadarn; and thereupon the English took possession of his whole territory. And along with him the men of Genau y Glyn all retreated to Gwynedd, leaving the whole of their corn and land waste. On the eve of St. Matthew63, Edmund and Pain went to England, and left Roger Myles to be constable at Aberystwyth, and to protect the country. The day after the feast of St. Ynys, Rhys Wyndod, and Cynan, son of Maredudd, returned from the court of the king to their own country. That year, in the beginning of harvest, the king sent a great part of his army into Mona, which burned much of the country, and took away much of the corn. And on the calends of winter64 after that, Llywelyn came to the king at Rhuddlan, and made his peace with him; and then the king invited him to come to London at Christmas, and he went there, and there he made his homage to the king. And after he had remained in London a fortnight, he returned to Wales. About the feast of St. Andrew65, Owain the Red, and Owain, son of Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn, son of Iorwerth, and Gruffudd son of Gwenwynwyn were released from the prison of Llywelyn, by the command of the king. And then Owain the Red obtained from his brother Llywelyn the cantrev of Lleyn, with his full consent.

1278. The ensuing year, the feast of St. Edward the king, king Edward and Edmund his brother, bestowed their cousin Eleanor, daughter of Simon Montford, for Eleanor daughter of king John was the mother of Simon Montford on Llywelyn, at the door of the great church in Worcester, and there were they married; and on that night the nuptials were solemnized. And the next day Llywelyn and Eleanor joyfully returned to Wales.

1279. The ensuing year, Edward ordered the coining of new money; and that the halfpennies and farthings should be made round. And thus was fulfilled the prophecy of Myrddin, when he says, “The symbol of the exchange shall be split, and the half shall be round.”

1280. One thousand two hundred and eighty was the year of Christ, when Rickert, of Caer Rhiw, bishop of Menevia, died a on the calends of April; and in his stead Thomas Beck was consecrated bishop.

That year died Philip the Red, the thirteenth abbot of Strata Florida; and after him Einon the Saxon became abbot, and in his lifetime the monastery was burned. After that, on the eve of the feast of a Candlemas66, the bishop of Menevia sang mass in Strata Florida; and that was the first mass that he sang in the diocese; and on the feast of St. David67 ensuing he sat in the chair in the church of Menevia.

1281. The ensuing year, David, son of Gruffudd, reduced the castle of Penharddlech, on the feast of St. Benet the abbot68, and slew the whole of the garrison, except Roger Clifford, the lord of the castle, and Pain Gamage; those he took and imprisoned.

1282. The ensuing year, the feast of St. Mary of the equinox69, Gruffudd, son of Maredudd, son of Owain, son of Gruffudd, son of the lord Rhys and Rhys, son of Maelgwn the Little, son of Maelgwn, son of the lord Rhys possessed themselves of the town and castle of Aberystwyth; and they burned the town and the castle, and destroyed the rampart that was round the castle and the town; sparing the lives of the garrison, because the days of the passion were near. And on that day, Rhys, son of Maelgwn, conquered the cantrev of Penwedig, and Gruffudd, son of Maredudd, the comot of Mevenydd.

Benedicamus Domino. Deo gratia.

NOTES:
1. This puts the date of the creation at 5207 BC.

2. In fact, Cadwaladr died a year later in Britain of the plague, as mentioned in the Annales Cambriae. Many of the subsequent entries into the tenth century are taken from the Annales Cambriae.

3. This plague is mentioned elsewhere.

4. The AC have this earthquake taking place on the Isle of Man, not Brittany.

5. Verbatim from the AC, as is the butter turning to blood the next year.

6. The AC has this eclipse occuring in 714.

7. This agrees with the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles.

8. The AC gives his name as Ougen, which James Ingram translated as “Oengus”, though Ougen would better be translated as Eogan, which is the Irish cognate of Owain, and cognate to the Latin Eugenius and English Eugene.

9. Also recounted in the AC.

10. Better known in English as Mount Snowdon.

11. Presumably Vikings.

12. This may be Suibhne s. Maeluma of Clonmacnois

13. Black Normans: like the “black pagans” mentioned above, this refers to Vikings.

14. Corvoc: This is in fact the famous Cormac mac Cuilennáin, bishop-king of Munster, who wrote the invaluable Sanas Cormaic.

15. The great Welsh law-codifier.

16. This marks the end of the AC, and its influence.

17. Alfred the Great

18. There is a good deal of disfiguring done to rivals in these annals; deformity was thought to disqualify one from kingship.

19. Arthmarcha: Armagh?

20. This was part of the war of Brian Boru against the Vikings.

21. This is the nineteen-year cycle of Dionysius Exiguus for finding the date of Easter; an explanation is given at Tertullian.org. The dating of Easter was long a bone of contention between Rome and the Celtic church.

22. Obviously the famous Brian Boru. But the year given here is wrong, as it happened in 1014, not 1013.

23. His biography is given here.

24. Gwyddelians: this is the Welsh name for the Irish, Scotti being Latin.

25. Albanians: The Scots of Scotland, which is called Alba in the Gaelic language, and which is different from Prydyn, which refers instead to the Pictish parts of what is now considered Scotland.

26. Malcom… Dwnchath: this is best known now from MacBeth.

27. Henry II Plantagenet

28. This is probably my favorite line in the whole text.

29. feast on which was born the lady Mary: Sept. 8

30. eleventh day …. twelfth day of the calends of October: Sept. 19? 20? I’m not sure if, in the few cases where this date formula is given, they are counting in the Roman way, where you count backwards from the Kalends, and thus would count back from October 1 which means 11 K Oct. = Sept. 20, or if they are counting in the way we’re now familiar with, which would mean the date in question is Oct. 11. The next note is for the twelfth day of the calends of October, which would be Sept. 19 by the old Roman reckoning, which would wouldn’t make sense, since it’s the day before. However, the next day mentioned is Michaelmas, which is Sept. 29, which obviously falls before October 11 or 12, but in this chronology the events fall after the 12 of the calends of October. And later the date sixteenth day of the calends of December is mentioned, which is either Nov. 15, or

31. fifteenth day of the calends of August: July 17? or August 15?

32. Atropos: one of the Fates, and specifically the one who cuts the thread of life.

33. Ystas the historian… Feryll the bard: Ystas may be Tacitus; Feryll is of course Virgil, the great Roman poet, who later gained the reputation as a great magician.

34. Apr. 27?

35. Jul. 22

36. Jul. 25

37. Jul. 7

38. Sep. 8?

39. Nov. 30

40. Presuming this is Thomas Becket, that would be December 29.

41. Jan. 13

42. Nov. 11

43. Dec. 20

44. Dec. 26

45. Dec. 27

46. Oct. 18

47. Caer Loyw: Gloucester; this is one of many examples where ab Ithel has inexplicably left the Welsh name for a

48. Aug. 29; this is the feast of the beheading of John the Baptist.

49. Sep. 16?

50. Dec. 6

51. Jan. 14?

52. Aug. 15

53. Sep. 8

54. Jan. 13

55. Jun. 25

56. Dec. 21

57. Sep. 16: This is the old feast of St. Lucy

58. Feb. 2

59. Low Easter: the Sunday after Easter

60. Sep. 15

61. Oct. 13

62. Jan. 3?

63. Sep. 21

64. calends of winter: Nov. 1, known in Irish as Samhain.

65. Nov. 30

66. Feb. 1: this is the eve of Candlemas, and in Irish is the feast of Imbolc.

67. Mar. 1

68. Jul. 22

69. Mar. 25? I’m not sure if this refers to Lady Day or not.

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